Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Mass The material that matter is made up of.
Volume How much room/space matter takes up.
Density D=mlv the Amount of material/stuff matter takes up in a specific space.
Atom Smallest part of an atom, the building blocks of all matter.
Electron Particle of atom with a negative charge, moves around the nucleus and has an attractive force that allows it to bond with other atoms creating everything in the universe.
Proton Particle of an atom with a positive charge located inside the nucleus.
Neutron Particle of an atom with a neutral /no charge located inside the nucleus along with the proton.
Periodic Table Large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties.
Element The simplest substances that cannot be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe.
Periods/Rows Rows that tell how many energy levels each elements has for the electrons to move around.
Groups or Families/Columns Columns that tell how many valence electrons each element has / the number of electrons that can move on it's outer shell / energy level.
Valence Electrons The electrons that move on the outer shell / energy level of an atom/
Atomic Number How many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is same # of neutrons and electrons.
Atomic Mass The measurement of the mass for an elements atom.
Chemical Property The ability of substances to combine with one one another forming new and different compounds and molecules.
Physical Property The state of matter and appearance of a substance.
Ionic Bond When elements either lose or gain electron during bonding.
Covalent Bond When elements share electrons during bonding.
Chemical Change / Reaction Elements bond together Through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change.
Compound / Molecule Two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio / pattern creating a whole, new and different .
Mixture Two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they DO NOT CHANGE into a whole new substance / compound.
Noble Gases All of the elements in Group #18 – they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell.
Halogens all of the elements in Group #17 – they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in Group #1 because they have seven valence electrons and want to be stable.
Alkali Metals All of the elements in Group #1 – they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron.
Metalloids Elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons.
Endothermic Chemical reaction that it "takes in" energy ex. vinegar and baking soda.
Exothermic Energy is released ex. sunlight/fusion

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