Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
Matter Anything that takes up space or has mass.
Mass The material that makes up matter.
volume How much room/space matter takes up.
density D=m/v the amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific space.
atom The smallest part of an Element, a building block of matter.
electron A particle of an atom with a negative charge.
proton A particle of an atom which is positive energy.
neutron A particle of an atom which has no energy it is neutral.
Periodic Table Grid that identifies and classifies the Elements into periods and groups by their chemical.
periods/rows Provides information for how many energy level, shells that surround.
groups/columns Columns that tell how many valence each element has.
valence electrons The electrons that move on the outer shell/ energy level of an atom.
atomic number How many protons an element has inside the nucleus/ usually the same # of neutrons and electrons.
atomic mass The measurement of the mass for a elements atom.
chemical property The ability of substances to combine with each other forming new/ different compounds and molecules.
physical property The state of matter/ appearance of a substance.
ionic bond When elements either lose or gain a electron during bonding.
covalent bond When elements share electrons during bonding.
chemical change/ reaction Elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction/ change.
compound/ molecule Two or more elements combined together in a specific ratio/ pattern creating a entirely whole, new and different substance.
mixture 2 or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they don't change into a entirely new substance or compound.
Nobel Gases All of the elements in Group #18 they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their own outer shell.
Halogens All of the elements in Group #17- have a good reactive bond w/ elements in Group #1, only because they have 7 valence electrons and they want to be stable.
Alkali Metals All of the elements in Group #1 they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron.
Metalloids Elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons.
Endothermic Chemical change that absorbs energy. Ex: baking soda and vinegar.
Exothermic Chemical reaction that releases energy. Ex: sunlight.

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