vocabulary for matter and elements

Term Definition
matter everything that has mass and takes up space
mass the material matter is made of
volume the space matter takes up
density the amount of mass in a specific volume of space
atom the smallest element and the building block for all matter
electron the particle of an atom with a negative charge, moves around the nucleus and has an attractive force which allows it to bond with other atoms
proton particle of an atom located in the nucleus with a positive charge
neutron particle of an atom without a charge located inside the nucleus
periodic table large grid that organizes all elements by physical and chemical properties
element the simplest substances that cannot be broken down
periods/rows rows tell how many energy levels each elements have for electrons to move around
groups or family/columns columns show valence electrons/the number of electrons that can move on its outer shell
valence electrons electrons that move on outer shell
atomic number how many protons an elements has inside the nucleus
atomic mass the measurement of the mass for an elements atoms
chemical property the ability of substances to combine with each other forming new compounds and molecules
physical property the state of matter and appearance
ionic bond when elements lose or gain and electron during bonding
covalent bond when elements share electrons during bonding
chemical change elements bond through an attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
compound/molecule two or more elements combine together in a set ratio creating a whole new substance
mixture two or more substances together but keeping there original properties they don't change into a new substance
Nobel gases all elements in group #18 they are most stable cause they have 8 electrons in their outer shell
halogens all elements in group #17 they are reactive bonding easily with elements in group 1 cause they have 7 valence electrons and want to be stable
alkali metals all elements in group #1 they are very reactive because they only have one valence electron
metalloids elements between metals and non metals can react either way, they have 3-7 valence electrons

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