Vocabulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass the material that matter is made of
Volume how much room/space matter takes up
Density D=m/v the amount of material/stuff matter takes up within a specific space
Atom smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter
Electron particle of an atom that surrounds the nucleus, it has a negative charge and an attractive force that allows it to bond with other atoms
Proton particle of an atom located inside the nucleus with a positive charge
Neutron no charge located inside the nucleus with the proton/ particle of an atom that is natural
Periodic Table a large grid that identifies and classifies all the elements by their chemical and physical properties
Element They make up all the matter in the universe/ is the simplest substance that can't be broken down
periods/rows tells how many energy levels each element has for the electrons to move around by rows
Groups or family/columns columns that shows how many valence electrons each element has / the number of electrons that can move in its outer shell / energy level
Valence electrons energy level of an atom / electrons that move on the outer shell
Atomic number how many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is the same # of neutrons and electrons
Atomic mass the measurement of the mass for an elements atom
Chemical property the ability of substances to combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules
Physical property the state of matter and appearance of a substance
Ionic bond when elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
Covalent bond when elements share electrons during bonding
Chemical change / reaction elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
Compound / molecule two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio / pattern creating a whole, new and different substance
Mixture two or more substances combined together keeping their original properties, they do NOT change into a whole new substance / compound
Noble gases all of the elements in group #18 – they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell
Halogens all of the elements in group #17 – the are very reactive bonding easily with elements in group #1 because they have seven valence electrons and want to be stable
Alkali metals all of the elements in group #1 – they are very reactive because they have only one valence electrons
Metalloids elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way, they have 3 – 7 valence electrons

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