Vocabulary for matter and elements

Term Definition
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass The material/stuff that matter takes up.
Space/Volume The specific area/place that matter takes up.
Density D=m/v The amount of mass in a specific volume of space.
Atom Smallest part of an element, the building blocks of all matter.
Electron Particle of an atom with a negative charge, moves around the nucleus and has an attractive force that allows it to bond with other atoms creating everything in the universe.
Proton Particle of an atom with a positive charge located inside the nucleus.
Neutron Particle of an atom with a neutral/no charge located inside the nucleus alongside the proton
Periodic Table Large grid that identifies and classifies all of the elements by their chemical and physical properties.
Element The simplest substances that cannot be broken down / they make up all matter in the universe.
Periods/Rows Rows that tell how many energy levels each elements has for the electrons to move around.
Groups or family/Columns Columns that tell how many valence electrons each element has / the number of electrons that can move on it's outer shell / Energy level.
Valence Electrons The electrons that move on the outer shell / Energy level of an atom.
Atomic Number How many protons an element has inside the nucleus / usually is the same # of neutrons and electrons.
Atomic Mass The measurement of the mass for an elements atoms.
Chemical Property The ability of substances to combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules.
Physical Property The state of matter and appearance of a substance
Ionic Bond When elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
Covalent Bond When elements share electrons during bonding.
Chemical Change / Reaction Elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change.
Compound / Molecule Two or more elements combine together in a specific ratio/pattern creating a whole, new and different substance.
Mixture Two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, THEY DO NOT CHANGE into a new substance/compound.
Nobel Gases All of the elements in Group #18 – they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell
Halogens All of the elements in Group #17 – they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in Group #1 because they have seven valence electrons and want to be stable.
Alkali Metals All of the elements in Group #1 – they are very reactive because they only have one valence electron.
Metalloids Elements between metals and non-metals that can react either way, they have 3 – 7 valence electrons.

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