Vocabulary Words

Term Definition
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Fertilization the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
Gametes a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Genetics the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Heterozygous a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive
Homologous having the same relation, relative position, or structure, in particular.
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Homozygous a pair of matching alleles, which are the two genes that control a particular trait.
Hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule
Assort (of genes or characters) become distributed among cells or progeny.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Probability the extent to which something is probable; the likelihood of something happening or being the case.
Punnett Square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment. It is named after Reginald C. Punnett, who devised the approach.
Zygote a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.

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