Vocbulary for Matter and Elements

Term Definition
Matter anything that takes up space and has mass
Mass material that matter is made up of
Volume how much space matter takes up
Density amount of mass in a certain volume or space
Atom smallest part of an element, building block of matter
Electron has a negative electric charge and has an electric force
Proton has a positive electric charge
Neutron particle of an atom located in the nucleus with a neutral or no charge
Periodic Table grid that identifies and classifies the elements into periods and groups by their chemical and physical property
periods/rows provides information for how many energy level, shells that surround the nucleus where the electrons move
groups/columns provides information
valence electrons electrons that move on the outer shell
atomic number how many protons an element has inside the nucleus
atomic mass the measurement of the mass for an elements atoms
chemical property the ability of substances to combine with one another forming new and different compounds and molecules
physical property the state of matter and appearance of a substance
ionic bond when elements either lose or gain an electron during bonding
covalent bond when elements share electrons during bonding
chemical change/reaction elements bond together through the attractive force of electrons creating some type of reaction and change
compound/molecule two or more substances combine together in a specific ratio/pattern creating a whole, new and different substance
mixture two or more substances combine together keeping their original properties, they do NOT change into a new substance, compound
Nobel Gases all of the elements in group 18 – they are the most stable elements because they have eight electrons in their outer shell
Halogens all of the elements in group 17- they are very reactive bonding easily with elements in group 1 because they have seven valence and want to be stable
Alkai Metals all of the elements in group 1 – they are very reactive because they have only one valence electron
Metalloids elements between metals and non – metals that can react either way, they have 3 – 7 valence electrons

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