A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained. [l] The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to perate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management.
The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater. [l] A 1992 World Health Organization study is claimed to have reported that out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, Just 209 have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities.  Downstream, the untreated water is used for rinking, bathing, and washing.
A 1995 report claimed 114 Indian cities were dumping untreated sewage and the partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River.  Open defecation is widespread even in urban areas of This situation is typical of India as well as other developing countries. According to another 2005 report, sewage discharged from cities and towns is the predominant cause of water pollution in India. Investment is needed to bridge the gap between 29000 million litre per day of sewage India generates, and a treatment capacity of mere 6000 million litre per day. ] A large number of Indian rivers are severely polluted as a result of discharge of domestic sewage. The Central Pollution Control Board, a Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India entity, has established a National Water Quality Monitoring Network comprising 1429 monitoring stations in 27 states and 6 in Union Territories on various rivers and water bodies across the country. This effort monitors water quality year round. The monitoring network covers 293 rivers, 94 lakes, 9 tanks, 41 ponds, 8 creeks, 23 canals, 18 drains and 411 wells distributed across India. ] Water samples are routinely analyzed for 28 parameters including dissolved oxygen, bacteriological and other internationally established parameters for water quality. Additionally 9 trace metals parameters and 28 pesticide residues are analyzed. Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations. The scientific analysis of water samples from 1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination are severe in water bodies of India. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic wastewater in untreated form, mostly from the urban centers of India.
Biochemical oxygen demand In 2008, the water quality monitoring found almost all rivers with high levels of BOD. The worst pollution, in decreasing order, were found in river Markanda (590 mg 0/1), followed by river Kali (364), river Amlakhadi (353), Yamuna canal (247), river Yamuna at Delhi (70) and river Betwa (58). For context, a water sample with a 5 day BOD between 1 and 2 mg OIL indicates a very clean water, 3 to 8 mg OIL indicates a moderately clean water, 8 to 20 indicates borderline water, and greater than 20 mg the cities and major towns.
In rural parts of India, the river BOD levels were sufficient to support aquatic life. Coliform levels Rivers Yamuna, Ganga, Gomti, Ghaggar, Chambal, Mahi, Vardha are amongst the other most coliform polluted water bodies in India. For context, coliform must be below 104 MPN/IOO ml, preferably absent from water for it to be considered safe for general human use, and for irrigation where coliform may cause disease outbreak from contaminated-water in agriculture. 9] In 2006, 47 percent of water quality monitoring the coliform levels in India are highly reported a total average annual oliform levels above 500 MPN/IOO ml.  During 2008, 33 percent of all water quality monitoring stations reported a total coliform levels exceeding those levels, suggesting recent effort to add pollution control infrastructure and upgrade treatment plants in India, may be reversing the water pollution trend. citation needed] Treatment of domestic sewage and subsequent utilization of treated sewage for irrigation can prevent pollution of water bodies, reduce the demand for fresh water in irrigation sector and become a resource for irrigation. Since 2005, Indian astewater treatment plant market has been growing annually at the rate of 10 to 12 percent. The United States is the largest supplier of treatment equipment and supplies to India, with 40 percent market share of new installation. 11] At this rate of expansion, and assuming the government of India continues on its path of reform, major investments in sewage treatment plants and electricity infrastructure development, India will nearly triple its water treatment capacity by 201 5, and treatment capacity supply will match India’s daily sewage water treatment requirements by about 2020. Other problems Water resources have not been linked to either domestic or international violent conflict as was previously anticipated by some observers.
Possible exceptions, notes a 2004 report, include some communal violence related to distribution of water from the Kaveri River and political tensions surrounding actual and potential population displacements by dam projects, particularly on the Narmada River.  A 1997 article claimed Punjab is another hotbed of pollution, for example, Buddha Nullah, a rivulet which run through Malwa region of Punjab, India, and after passing through highly opulated Ludhiana district, before draining into Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus river, is today an important case point in the recent studies, which suggest this as another Bhopal in making. 13] A Joint study by PGIMER and Punjab Pollution Control Board in 2008, revealed that in villages along the Nullah, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, mercury, beta-endosulphan and heptachlor pesticide were more than permissible limit (MPL) in ground and tap waters. Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), mmonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide.
The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.  The Hindon River, which flows through the city of Ghaziabad, highly polluted and groundwater of this city has colored and poisoned by industrial effluents, Hindon Vahini is strongly opposing of water pollution activities. Flooding during monsoons worsens India’s water pollution problem, as it washes and moves all sorts of solid garbage and contaminated soils illion cubic metres. 6] From this, with the state of Indian infrastructure in 2005, the available water resource through the rivers is about 1869 billion cubic meters. Accounting to uneven distribution of rain over the country each year, water resources available for utilization, including ground water, is claimed to be about 1122 billion cubic meters. Much of this water is unsafe, because pollution degrades water quality. Water pollution severely limits the amount of water available to Indian consumer, its industry and its agriculture.