Water Resource Development In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay

Water resources in Malaysia come in the signifier of groundwater, lakes, seas and rivers. The rivers have served as the exclusive beginning of H2O supply for Malayan ingestions in all parts of the state. Throughout the old ages, the river H2O quality has deteriorated and doing its handiness for ingestion much more hard than in the yesteryear.

Our river pollutions are because to indicate and non-point resources. Major land-based pollution activities identified are urban colonies, agricultural run-offs, illegal river corridor colonies, industrial discharges and sewerage/animal farming.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Water Resource Development In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Department of Environment Malaysia ( DOE ) published an one-year environmental quality study for twelvemonth 2006. It complies with the Section 3 ( 1 ) ( one ) of the Environmental Quality Act 1974, embracing H2O, air noise and pollution stock list. In the study, DOE have supervising the full 146 river basin. 80 of these basins were clean, 51 basins were somewhat polluted and 15 basins were polluted. Juru River and Pinang River in Penang, Buluh River in Selangor and Danga River, Tebrau River, Segget River and Pasir Gudang River in Johor are the seven polluted rivers. They were located in the industrial country where industrial wastes illicitly dump into the river.

The industry is the most one who contribute to the pollution, and 2nd is people. In many of the H2O environments, the populace ‘s attitude of attention less about their river, leads to indiscriminate disposal of rubbish and industries do non handle the discharge. These contaminated the river. Lack of enforcement has become another major challenge to guarantee that the aquatic environment maintain on preserve. The bureaus can be supervising the rivers all the clip and to guarantee the public and industry to follow with the jurisprudence.


The job of river pollution is diverse and complex. It is rather impossible to get the better of these jobs wholly. This is because it related closely the kineticss of socio-economic and political advancement in Malaysia. It besides has been linked to a series of deep-seated institutional restraints.

One of import ground for the trouble of get the better ofing the jobs are the fragmentation manner of river basin direction and enforcement powers are separated in assorted bureaus. There is no concern of incorporating upstream and downstream.

Attempts have been made to get the better of the jobs, but most of the clip it merely to bring around, non bar.



Government have adopted a few policies in the state. Some of them are translated from the international understanding. Below table 2.1 are the policies that related to H2O direction and development in Malaysia.

Table 2.1 Policies and its of import facets



Agenda 21

( Chapter 18 )

-Quality protected and supply of clean H2O for state and towards sustainable development

Outline Perspective Plan ( 0PP 3 )

-Supply of H2O with concentric on incorporate attack for river basin.

-Protected of H2O catchment country and H2O transportation.

-Sustainable Forest Management in protect H2O catchment country.

Eight Malaysia Plan ( RMK8 )

-Identified and gazette Environment Sensitive Area ( ESA ) and integrated planning attack.

-Formulate Integrated River Management System ( IRMS ) to get the better of the debasement of H2O quality of river, lake and groundwater.

National Conservation Strategy ( NCS 1993 )

-National Water Council ( NWC ) should see the holistic H2O catchment direction.

-Need to identified and continue catchments country for forest dike.

-Provide Permanent Forest Estate for H2O catchment country.

National Physical Plan ( NPP )

NPP 22

NPP 31

-Refers to the H2O catchment country which have been identified at national degree

-Preservation and preservation policies of ESA related to IWRM.

Nine Malaysia Plan ( RMK9 )

-Emphasis in retain and heighten the river ecosystem through saving and preservation of upland, wetland, watershed and riparian zone.

For illustration, The National Policy on the Environment was adopted in 2002 lineations schemes to impel state ‘s growing trends towards sustainable development that embodies the three pillars:

Economic development

Social development

Environment protection


Administration and direction of H2O resources presently involve a figure of sections and bureaus, which operate independently of one another harmonizing to the specific duties assigned to them. Table 2.2 shows the several functions of each section /agency

Table 2.2 Departments or bureaus and its function sing H2O in Malaysia.




Water Supply

Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Irrigation H2O beginning development

Monitoring watercourse flow and irrigation H2O supply

Waterworks Department

Water supply beginning plants

Treatment and supply of imbibing H2O

Tenaga National Berhad

Hydropower beginning works development

Water Pollutant Control

Department of Environment

Control industrial pollutions

Local Authorities/ Indah Water Consortium

Control and intervention of sewage

Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Control of pollutant from irrigation countries

Mines Department

Control of pollutant from mining operations

Water Quality Management

Department of Environment

Monitoring of H2O quality

Fisheries Department

Prohibition of usage of poisoning or destructive methods for fishing

Chemistry Department

Analytic services on H2O samples monitored

Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Planning, building and care of drainage plants

Watershed Management

Forestry Department

Protection of wood, watershed direction within wood militias

Town and Country Planning Department

Landuse planning and control

Tenaga Nasional/ Waterworks Department/ Department of Irrigation and Drainage

Protection of watershed upstream of reservoirs

In the yesteryear, there has been no individual bureau at river basin, State or Federal degree entrusted with the overall duty for holistic planning and direction of H2O. Conflicts affecting H2O resource allotment, inundation direction, environmental protection, etc. are resolved chiefly through ad-hoc inter-agency audiences. Following the H2O crisis in 1998, the National Water Resources Council was formed with a position to prosecute more effectual H2O direction including the execution of inter-state H2O transportation.

In 1999 and 2000 severally, passages have been passed to let for the formation of the Selangor Waters Management Authority and State Water Resources Council. These are of import stairss towards more holistic planning and ordinance of H2O resources.

The Federal Government is soon taking stairss to put up the National Water Board under the National Water Resources Council. There is the option of holding a board, which will take over about all the maps related to H2O resources and one with limited maps.

The former is both a boring and time-consuming procedure, which will affect the amendment of the Federal Constitution and protracted audiences with the State Governments. There were separate efforts to originate small-scale reorganisation of authorities sections that includes the shifting of sections to allow ministries and forming of new ministries. This will to some extent aid work out the jobs of struggles and inefficiency and at the same clip avoid acquiring involved in really time-consuming procedure.

The Department of Irrigation and Drainage is prosecuting the formation of River Management Committees under its One-State One-River Program for provinces, which do non hold any governments in implementing IRBM programs.


There are some 40 Federal Torahs related to land and H2O. In add-on, there are 3 or 4 passages in each province. Some of the list of the statute law related to H2O in Malaysia shown in table 2.3. These Torahs by and large govern the usage instead than the protection of the resources. They fragmented to accommodate the sectorial direction and usage of the resources.

These Federal and State Government bureaus are individually responsible to command and modulate H2O and land related issues in Malaysia. In the instance of H2O resources, the Federal Government is responsible for federal plants and power including H2O supply, interstate rivers and canals. State Government is responsible for control over province rivers, riverine piscaries and H2O supplies and control in the instance of any H2O related affair under understanding among the provinces and control of silt and riparian rights. Drain and irrigation issues are within the coincident list.

Therefore, struggles and convergences are common. There is a demand to explicate new Torahs, which will turn to the above issues and the demand of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM ) . Three provinces, viz. the States of Selangor, Sabah and Sarawak, have moved in front in this way. In April 1999, the State of Selangor has passed an passage that provides for the formation of the Selangor Waters Management Authority.

In June 2000, the State of Sabah has besides passed the Sabah Water Resources Enactment 1998 that provides for the formation of State Water Resources Council. These passages provide for Integrated River Basin Management ( IRBM ) , where and when required, and the demand to fix back uping Integrated Catchment Management Plans or River Basin Management Plans to maneuver and supervise development.

Table 2.2 Departments or bureaus and its function sing H2O in Malaysia.


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out