weathering erosion deposition and land forms

Question Answer
the breakdown of rock material by physical and chemical processes weathering
the process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces by physical changes physical weathering
oxygen in the air and acids agents of chemical weathering
the breakdown of rocks by chemical reaction chemical weathering
the process by which other chemicals combine with oxygen oxidation
when fossil fuels are burned, other chemicals combine with water in the atmosphere to produce even stronger acids. When these stronger acids fall to Earth, they are called… acid precipitation
temperature changes, pressure changes, plant and animal actions, water, wind, and gravity agents of physical weathering
cause a rock to expand rise in temperature
cause a rock to contract decrease in temperature
repeated temperature changes weaken the rock, causing the rock to crumble
rocks to physically break apart by causing cracks in rocks to expand as water seeps in and freezes, when water expands to become ice, ice expands causing the crack to widen, more water enters crack and expands crack till the rock splits apart ice wedging AKA frost wedging
process by which the outer layer of rock slowly peel away due to pressure changes exfoliation
the breaking down and wearing away of rock material by the mechanical action of other rock abrasion
common features in cave systems as dissolved chemicals are deposited by dripping water underground stalactites and stalagmites
organism that produces acids naturally lichens and mosses
the process by which sediment and other materials are moved from one place to another erosion
the process by which eroded material is dropped, when gravity's downward pull on sediment is greater than the push of flowing water or wind slows down deposition
when a stream floods, a layer of sediment is deposited over the flooded land. Many layers of deposited sediment can form a flat area called….. floodplain
steams often deposit their loads in a fan-shaped pattern called a….. delta
fan-shaped deposit that forms on dry land… alluvial fan
the water located within the rocks below Earth's surface… groundwater
the place where land and a body of water meet shoreline
an area of shoreline that is made up of material deposited by waves and currents beach
an underwater or exposed ridge of sand, gravel, or shell material sandbar
a long, narrow island, usually made of sand, that forms parallel to the shoreline a short distance offshore barrier island
how does flowing water changes Earth's surface by erosion, and deposition
what factors relate to a stream's ability to erode material gradient, load, and discharge
the measure of the changed in elevation over a certain distance gradient
materials carried by a stream load
amount of water that a stream carries in a given amount of time discharge
what landforms can streams create canyons, valley by erosion, floodplains by deposition, and deltas and alluvial fans by deposition
if the roof of the cave collapses is may leave a circular depression called a… sinkhole
what forces shape a shoreline waves and currents
first part of the shoreline the waves meet…finger-shaped projections that form when cliffs of hard rock erode more slowly than the surrounding softer rock does….. headlands
caused by waves hitting the shore at an angle longshore currents
what coastal landforms are made by erosion sea cliffs and wave-cut platforms, sea caves, arches and stacks
forms when waves erode and undercut rock to make steep slopes sea cliff
form when a sea cliff is worn back from shore, producing a nearly level platform beneath the water at the base of the cliff wave-cut platform
form when waves cut large holes into fractured or weak rock along the base of sea cliffs sea caves
form when wave action erodes sea caves until a hole cuts through a headland sea arches
form when the tops of sea arches collapse and leave behind isolated columns of rock sea stacks
what coastal landforms are made by deposition beaches, sandbars and barrier islands
glacier that forms in a mountainous area alpine glacier
thick deposits of the windblown, fine-grained sediment loess
bowel shaped depression at the head of a valley cirques
general term for all the materials carried and deposited by a glacier glacial drift
extremely slow movement of material downslope creep
when loose rocks fall down a steep slope rockfall
sudden and rapid movement of a large amount of material downslope landslide
rapid movement of a large mass of mud, happens when a large amount of water mixes with soil and rock mudflow
how can wind shape Earth abraded rock, desert pavement, dunes and loess
what kinds of ice shape Earth flowing ice, alpine glaciers, and continental glaciers
how can gravity shape earth slow mass movement, rapid mass movement,
a region of increased elevation on Earth's surface that rises to a peak mountain
a large mass of gradually moving or flowing ice that forms by compacting of snow by natural forces glacier
body of fresh or salt water that is surrounded by land lake
large, natural stream of water that flows into an ocean or other large body of water, such as a lake river
a deposit, formed by sediment, that accumulates at the mouth of a river delta
dynamic boundary between land and the ocean coastline
mound of wind-deposited sand dune
removal of fine sediment by wind deflation
sharp ridge that forms between two cirques that are next to each other arete
when 3 or more aretes join, they form a sharp peak called,,,,, horn

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