WGU Science Terms & Questions

Question Answer
The structure of living organisms including those of entire populations and ecosystems is organized in a hierarchical fashion. ex: Rainforest, desert, fresh water lake, digestive tract of animal for bacteria Hierachy of Life
Includes all living organisms and non living matter such as air, water and minerals. ex. All species in an this Ecosystem
All individuals of a single species. Only includes living things from bacteria, to fungi, to plant to animal. Community
Includes only individuals from a specific species such as a plant, an animal, a bacterial colony. Population
One single individual. Serves as a representative of the species and describes overall form and function of this. Organism
A specialized functional system of an organism. ex. The nervous system or immune system of an animal. Organ system
A specialized functional subsystem of an organism. ex. The brain or the thymus of an animal. Organ
A specialized substructure of an organ. ex. The nervous tissue and epithelial tissue are both part of the brain. Tissue
A single cell. ex. A neuron, a skin cell, a root cell, bacteria, yeast, paramecium. ex.A single cell Cell
These are the smallest part of biological systems; they can be studied for their chemical, physical properties, but are of particular interest for their usefulness in biological systems. ex. a protein, DNA, sugar or fatty acid Molecule
A series of changes, some gradual and some sporadic, that accounts for the present form and function of objects, organisms, and natural and designed systems. Evolution
Molecules, organelles, and cells is the secret to life. Cells are organized into tissues, which are organized into organs and organ systems which keeps going up until biosphere. Property of Life
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the cell’s genetic material, a double stranded molecule consisting of sugar-phosphate backbones attached by pairs of matched nitrogenous bases; in the form of a double helix. DNA
Too small to be seen by the unaided eye but large enough to be studied under this. Microscopic
The theory that every complex phenomenon, esp. in biology or psychology, can be explained by analyzing the simplest, most basic physical mechanisms that are in operation during the phenomenon. Reductionism
Visible to the naked eye. Macroscopic
This is a biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (holism instead of reduction) to study them. Systems Biology
The idea that scientific hypotheses must be capable of being proven wrong is a pillar of the philosophy of science. For a hypothesis to be considered scientific it must be testable—it must, in principle, be capable of being proven wrong. Falsifiability
This is a physical state in which forces and changes occur in opposite and off-setting directions: for example, opposite forces are of the same magnitude, or off-setting changes occur at equal rates. This is the system that controls body temperature Equilibrium
It can be costly and difficult to study real systems. Exploring the behavior of a this can inform studies of the real system. This creation is extremely useful in the formation of a hypothesis. Models
Each level of the hierarchical structure is distinct from the collection of the component of these. Systems/Subsystems
This is an organized group of related objects or components that form a whole. This can consist of organisms, machines…and education. This have boundaries, components, resources flow (input and output), and feedback. Systems
The principle that any system, regardless of the subject under study, can be broken into parts for study is used by all scientists. Subsystem
This is the performance of experiments to produce repeatable observations. Scientific Method
Scientific Method consist of: observe, question, hypothesize, predict, test predictions, and draw a conclusion. (An orderly method for gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge.)
This is driven by what comparisons are going to be made and which type of data analysis will be done. Principles of experimental design
All experimental designs involve: 1. Organization of treatment groups 2. Determination of treatment sequences 3. Measurement of outcomes.
The process of measuring factors that are involved in the experiment is called? Data collection
This provides a descriptive measure (color, degrees of agreement, etc). Qualitative data
This provides a numerical measure (distance, time, temperature). Quantitative data
This consists of names. This sort of data is qualitative. There is no scale of measure and no rank of order involved. Nominal data
This has rank order, but occurs on no set scale. This data can be qualitative or quantitative. Ordinal data
This is quantitative. There is a rank order, and it occurs on a scale, but a scale with no fixed reference. Interval data
This is quantitative, has rank order, and occurs on a scale that has a fixed reference. Ratio data
The outcome, or effect, of a certain variable. What you are measuring (This variable is the factor whose outcome is being measured in an experiment.) Dependent variable
This is a tentative explanation of an observed phenomenon. It can be revised with the emergence of new facts. Hypothesis
What must be able to be proven wrong in some way.It must be possible to do an experiment, or measure natural phenomena, which could in principle, prove this wrong.) Hypothesis
These are all the things you hold constant so you are only testing the independent variable. Control Parameters
This is used as a comparison so it is the experiment without the independent variable. Control
The recording or description of an occurrence, sometimes involving measurement with instruments is called? Observation
Known information is what? Evidence
These are generally something that competent observers can observe and agree to be true. (These are revisable data about the world.) Facts
This is a synthesis of facts and well tested hypotheses. An encompassing idea that provides a full explanation for known observations.(This is an all-encompassing explanation).(These interpret the facts) Theory
This is when a scientific hypothesis has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted. Laws/principle
The ability to accept or reject the null hypothesis is what provides the power behind any _____ of a scientific inquiry. Conclusion
Explain the difference between dependent and independent variables Dependent variables are what you are measuring. It is the outcome, or effect, of the independent variable. Independent variables are what you are in control of and is manipulated by the experimenter.
Why is it important to include controlled parameters when solving a scientific problem? To ensure that the change to the outcome of the process would have occurred only due to the manipulation of that parameter of the system, the experiment should be run in parallel with a control.
This is the study of such concepts as motion, force, energy, matter, heat, sound, light, and the components of atoms. So physics is basic to both physical science and life science. Physics
An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.(water in a dish, as you walk,apply law)(at times referred as law of inertia) Newton’s 1st Laws of Motion
The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same direction as the net force and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.(objects for which all existing forces are not balanced.) Newton’s 2nd Laws of Motion
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. Newton’s 3rd Laws of Motion
The distance traveled per time. Speed
This occurs anytime an object's speed increases, decreases, or changes direction. (the rate of change of velocity) Acceleration
The speed of an object with specification of its direction of motion. The rate at which an object changes its position. V=d/t if speed is constant Velocity
Change in position Displacement
The property of things to resist changes in motion. The resistance of an object to changes in. Inertia
A push or pull Force
This is a device that requires only the use of one force to do work. Simple Machines
This is a rigid object that is used in conjunction with a fulcrum to apply a multiplied amount of force to another object. A see-saw, a wheelbarrow, Catapults or garden hoes are examples. Lever
This is an inclined plane. This is a simple machine that reduces the amount of force needed to raise an object (the load) upward by moving it along at a small angle from the ground. Ramp
The secret to ramps is they decrease the force required, but increase the distance over which it is done–thus keeping the total amount of work the same.
This is technically just a variation on a ramp, the difference being that this is used to separate objects. Examples are axes and nails. Wedge
This is a simple machine that is able to turn torque into linear force. This is also used for boring holes or tunnels and for lifting water or other fluid materials. Screw
This is a wheel with a groove in the edge, which holds a cable. Pulley
A torque applied to the ____ is multiplied in the_____. By applying a small force over a longer distance to the crank, the ____ shows a resultant force that is greater, but over a shorter distance. Wheel / Axle /Axle
This is the number of times a machine multiplies your effort force Mechanical Advantage
It is not a force, it is motion. All objects free fall at the same rate of acceleration, regardless of their mass. This is the thing which causes objects to fall to Earth. Gravity
Energy of motion. Anything that is moving has this energy. Temperature is a measure of the average of this energy. The warmer the object the more this energy its atoms and molecules possess. Kinetic
The gravitational potential energy of an object due to its distance (y) from the Earth’s surface is? Potential Energy Conversions
When atomic nuclei are unstable they decompose. They break down into smaller nuclei. A byproduct of the nuclear this is radioactive material. Fission
If a large amount of energy is available, the components of atomic nuclei can be fused. The temperature required to fuse nuclei is so large that it is only found in stars. Fusion
Atomic this would not create any by-products that were hazardous (such as radioactive waste), or negatively impact the environment (such as excessive quantities of carbon dioxide). Fusion
Without any external intervention a given atom will ___________. If this occurs before the bomb is fully ready, it could fizzle. This is called? fission spontaneously / Spontaneous Nuclear Fission
This is a longitudinal waves propagating through medium. Sound waves
What are the different sound waves? Shorter wavelengths, or higher frequencies, have higher-sounding tones. Sound waves with greater displacement are: louder sounds. Higher waves have louder-sounding tones
How does Sound travel? Sound moves only by compression of a medium
The particles of the medium move back and forth in the direction of the wave's propagation. Sound waves
Speed of sound increases if? the temperature of air increases
This is a form of electromagnetic energy/wave Light
Lights are made up of? tiny bits of energy called photons
Speed of light is? constant in space
Does light require a medium to travel? Light does not require a medium to travel
Does all forms of light have the same speed? Yes, all forms of light have the same speed.
A wave phenomenon is what? Light, because-you observe the build-up of the alternating light and dark pattern from diffraction from light passing through a narrow slit.
How long a wave is, is called a? Wavelength
How many vibrations in a given time is called? Frequency
This happens when light strikes an opaque surface. In specular ______, light will reflect from a surface at the same angle from which it originated. If the surface is rougher or more granular, then the _____ will be diffuse ________. Reflection
The surface struck by light is not opaque, and the light penetrates the surface and begins to travel through a new medium.(a rainbow in the sky is an example) Refraction
This is a result of the wave properties of light, and occurs when light passes through a small opening (as in the double slit experiment) or passes by the edges of an opaque surface. Diffraction
A wave of energy produced when an electric charge accelerates. Electromagnetic waves
A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. These waves do not require a medium to move. They can move on their own through space or through a medium. Transverse waves
A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction parallel with the direction in which the wave travels. These waves require a medium and move parallel to the direction of the vibration. Longitudinal waves
The thermal energy that flows from a substance of higher temperature to lower temperature, commonly measured in calories or joules. Heat
The direction of energy flow is always from a warmer thing to a neighboring cooler thing. Thermal
When heat flow occurs in a fluid (a gas or a liquid). Convection
One of the key driving forces behind Earth’s weather patterns is? Convection in air
The movement of a low density (or warmer) mass of water upward and the movement of a high density (or colder) mass downward is? Convection in liquid
As water in the tropical regions is heated, it rises. At the same time, water in the Polar Regions is cooler and sinks. Convection in oceans
These two driving forces cause ocean currents that move water in the oceans from near the tropics up toward the Polar Regions and back again. Convection in oceans
When heat flow occurs in a solid the process. This seeks to make all parts of the substance into the same layer. Conduction
Thermal _____ from the Sun travels through space and then through the Earth’s atmosphere and warms the Earth’s surface. Radiation
What can't Radiation do? This energy cannot pass through the empty space between the Sun and Earth by conduction or convection, for there is no medium for doing so. The transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves.
A disturbance that travels from one place to another, transporting energy, but not necessarily matter, along with it. The velocity of a traveling wave is not the same as the velocity of the particles in the medium. Wave Properties
A continuous range of electromagnetic waves extending from radio waves to gamma rays. Represents a range of wavelengths at which radiation can travel. Gamma rays,x-rays,ultraviolet,visible light,near infrared, middle infrared,thermal infrared, microwave Electromagnetic Spectrum
a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons. Electricity
The material through which electricity moves. ex. Metal Conductor
Materials that do not allow the movement of electrons. ex. Glass, rubber, and plastic Insulator
This is a moving charge. Refers to the behavior of electrical charges in motion. The rate at which electric charges flow through a circuit Electric current
This is one that is not moving. Refers to the behavior of electrical charges at rest- Because like charges repel each other, the two balls will swing away from each other because of the static charge on each one. Static charge
There are two types of magnetic poles, conventionally called North and South. Like poles repel, and opposite poles attract. In the vicinity of a magnetic field, a moving charge will experience a force. Magnetism
This consist of electrons moving through a wire from an area of high potential energy to an area of low potential energy. It must make a complete, unbroken loop Electric Circuits
This can be used to reduce the current flowing through a circuit A Resistor
This can be used to increase (or decrease) voltage. A transformer
Always flows in one direction. This is found in batteries (such as a flashlight battery). Direct current (DC)
This changes direction of flow at a high rate of speed. This is the type of current that is found in electrical wall outlets. Alternating current
An electric circuit with two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one, and any single one completes the circuit independently of all the others. Parallel circuit
An electric circuit with devices connected in such a way that the same electric current flows through each of them. Series circuit
series and parallel circuits together Series-parallel circuit
Builds on physics by telling us how matter is put together, how atoms combine to form molecules, and how the molecules combine to make the materials around us. Chemistry
These are a building block of all matter Atoms
Atoms are made up of… protons, neutrons, and electrons.
What makes up the nucleus of the atom? Proton and neutrons
Where does the electrons exist in the atom? outside the nucleus
Any material that is made up of only one type of atom is called? An element
Atoms are in a state of? perpetual motion
Electrons move about ______ in an atom, defining what? the nucleus /the volume of space that the atom occupies.
Atoms are mostly ______. Because? empty space. since electrons are very small, and because they are widely separated from each other and from the nucleus
Although the space within the atom is mostly devoid of matter, it is filled with_______. an electric field
How do atoms interact with one another? electrically
Each atom differs based on _______. the number of protons it contains
What determines how it will bond with other atoms? The number of electrons in an atom's outermost energy level and how loosely the electrons are held
It is primarily at the atomic level that the number of electrons determine how atoms will ______. react chemically
When an atom bonds with one or two other atoms it forms_______. a molecule
Molecules are associated with___________because they result in a structure with a definite size and number of atoms (i.e. water, hydrogen, methane, etc). covalent bonds
Atoms that bond together with an ionic bond form an________________. ionic compound.
Table salt is an________and the chemical formula NaCl indicates the ration of… ionic compound /of sodium to chlorine but NaCl is not considered a molecule.
When an atom forms a chemical bond and becomes part of a molecule, what happens? its properties will change. For example an atom of hydrogen will have different properties than a hydrogen atom that is part of a water molecule. It is still a hydrogen atom but it now functions as part of a water molecule.
It has the smallest mass. It has a negative 1 charge which makes it complimentary to Proton. Electron
It has about the same mass as the proton, but it has no electric charge. Neutron
It is 1800 times more massive than an electron. It has a positive 1 charge which makes it complimentary to Electron. Protron
This is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Atomic mass
The mass of an atom is slightly lower than the masses of ______ of which it is composed. Subatomic Particles mass
Electrons, protons, and neutrons make up these. subatomic particles and protons and neutrons are made of still smaller particles, the fundamental particles that quarks may be made of infinitely thin string loops.
These are atoms of the same element have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons and, therefore, different mass numbers. ______ of an element differ only in mass, not in electric charge. Isotopes
Any material that is made up of only one type of atom. The number of protons defines this. For any _____, there is no set number of neutrons in the nucleus. Elements
The attraction between two atoms that holds them together in a compound. (A bond can form when two or more atoms share or transfer electrons.) Chemical Bonds
The strongest type of bond is… covalent bond
This is when the electrons are shared between two atoms. So in the outer shell (orbital) of an atom, if it is not filled it will either share or transfer electrons in order to fill its outermost shell. Covalent
Periodic Table consists of… all known elements that are listed in order of atomic number.used to use atomic mass to determine the order of the elements. Show the number of protons in each element. Separate the metals and the nonmetals. separate artificial and non artificial.
Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. The atoms present at the beginning of a reaction merely rearrange to form new molecules. This means that no atoms are lost nor gained during any reaction. What is it? Conservation of Mass
In the Conservation of Mass the chemical equation must be… balanced, which means each atom shown in the equation must appear on both sides of the arrow the same number of times. 2 H2(g) + O2(g) : 2 H2O(g) (balanced)
In the absence of external work input or output, the energy of a system remains unchanged. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It is merely converted from one form to another. Conservation of Energy
A rearrangement of atoms so that one or more new compounds are formed from preexisting compounds or elements. Is what? Chemical Reactions
This is the process whereby a reactant loses one or more electrons. Oxidation
This is the opposite process whereby a reactant gains one or more electrons. Reduction
What are complementary processes that occur at the same time. Oxidation and reduction
A reaction involving the transfer of electrons from one reactant to another. Oxidation/Reduction
A substance is reduced when… it gains electrons
A substance is oxidized when… it loses an electron
The substance that is oxidized is… the reducing agent
The substance that is reduced is the oxidizing agent
K + Cl > K+ + Cl- K > K+ Becomes oxidized and loses electrons(Electron donor, Reducing agent and substance oxidized by the reaction)
K + Cl > K+ + Cl- Cl > Cl- Becomes reduced and gains electrons (Electron acceptor, Oxidizing agent, and substance reduced by the reaction)
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering its activation energy Catalyst
This is any chemical that donates a hydrogen ion, H+, “sour”. Examples: citrus fruits, vinegar, and many toilet cleaners, and carbonated beverages. Acid
These are any chemical that accepts a hydrogen ion. “bitter taste” and solutions of this are slippery. Examples: (Baking Soda) sodium bicarbonate (make baked goods rise), ashes, soap, drain cleaners. Bases
When acids and bases react they always produce water and another compound known chemically as a salt. Another characteristic of This is that they liberate heat (they are exothermic). acid-base reactions
Anything that occupies space Matter
What are the 4 states of matter solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas
What makes up the universe as we know it? Matter is comprised of atoms
This is more akin to action or the ability for action to occur Energy
Energy is a process by which… matter changes from one state, or position in space, to another
Matter that has a definite volume and a definite shape. These are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern. Solids
Atoms are packed closely together and are not able to move in any manner except vibration. Solids
Crystalline and Amorphous are what kind of matter? solids
These are matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape, assuming the shape of its container but maintain a set volume. Composed of atoms that are closely packed, but not as closely packed as solids. Liquids
Liquids can be converted into a solid by… decreased temperatures or increased pressures
Liquids can be converted into gases by… increased temperatures or decreased pressures also known as vaporization.
These are Matter that has neither a definite volume nor a definite shape, always filling any space available to it. The atoms that comprise matter in the state of a this are not packed together at all, but move around freely. Gases
Gases take the shape of their container and also… expand to fill the volume of their container
Gases are composed of atoms having… a high kinetic energy
Gases are considered what because they are able to flow (like natural gas flows through a pipeline) Fluid
Steam is what form? Steam is water in its gaseous form
gases can be converted into liquids by… decreased temperature or increased pressure known as condensation
gases can be converted into plasma by… If sufficient energy is applied to the gas to remove electrons
When the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases and when the pressure is decreased the volume increases. Boyle’s Law
When the temperature of a gas at constant volume is increased, the pressure of the gas increases and when the temperature is decreased, the pressure of the gas decreases. Charles’s Law
This is ionized gas at extremely high temperature. In this, the particles have very high energy. Plasma
This is the removal of electrons from the atoms that the matter is made of, so plasma is a state of matter that contains a positive charge. Ionization
What is composed of plasma? Stars, like our Sun
The stable internal environment that is maintained within the body despite fluctuations in the external environment. Is called? Homeostasis
How does organisms maintain homeostasis? by balancing each of the following factors: Nutrients, wastes, temperature, the immune system and reproductive cycles.
The cells in a body must communicate with each other in order to maintain homeostasis. A set point is the optimal value of a physiological variable. Violations of a body’s set point trigger homeostatic responses in the body. What is this? Mechanisms of Homeostasis
three major roles of the _______include ingestion, digestion, and absorption. Digestive System
Involves the intake of food. Ingestion
Involves the breakdown of food into small absorbable molecules. Digestion
This is the uptake of small molecules from the digestive system into the bloodstream. Absorption
The process in plants and some other organisms in which light energy from the sun is converted to energy in organic molecules. Photosynthesis
What plant process uses sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide? Photosynthesis
The functions as the body’s defense against pathogens and abnormal cells of the body. Is called? Immune System
What organs and tissues does the human body use to fight off infection and disease? Spleen, Lymph nodes, tonsils, bone marrow, & thymus
a non-specific body defenses that work against a wide variety of potential pathogen and present in all animals Innate immunity
The body's first line of defense protects against the invasions of pathogens are… skin, mucous membranes and secretions
The body’s second line of defense is also nonspecific and defends the body against pathogens that have evaded the first line of defenses are… phagocytes, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation.
This is highly specific—the cells of this system recognize very specific features of specific pathogens and take action only when these features are encountered. This system is probably only found in vertebrates. Acquired immunity
1-10 microns and have a single circular chromosome in size. Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells differ in … their ribosome structure and in their cell sizes
Does Prokaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane surrounding their DNA, nor any membrane-bound organelles? no
Organisms whose cells that lack a nucleus and organelles, including bacteria and archaea. Prokaryotes
10–100 microns in size and have rod-like chromosomes Eukaryotic Cells
These are compartmentalized for efficiency Eukaryotic Cells
Organisms whose cells have a nucleus and organelles, including protists, animals, plants, and fungi. Eukaryotes
These are complex living cells & single-celled living organisms Bacteria
All bacteria are … prokaryotes
Bacteria consists of… a large circular molecule of DNA
This tends to be found in very extreme environments, such as hot springs, deep ocean vents, and swamp bottoms with no oxygen Archae bacteria
The eubacteria are common in … soils and as infections in plants, animals, and fungi
Many types are beneficial to other life forms bacteria
Responds to stimuli through behavioral changes bacteria
These are relatively simple structurally, and not considered to be alive Viruses
These reproduce by using the cellular machinery of a host organism and may kill its host cell. … Viruses
These do not respond to stimuli, and they are not metabolically active like other cellular organisms. Viruses
Viruses are responsible for… many human diseases.
This does not posses structures that enable them to move purposefully through the environment. Viruses
What is Embryonic meiosis, fertilization, implantation of blastocyst, embryo development & birth? Human Reproduction
Chemical messengers produced in one place in the body, released into the bloodstream, and received by target cells elsewhere in the body. Hormones
What is all living things use energy,develop and grow,maintain themselves,maintain their internal environment, keeping it stable in the face of changing external conditions,they have the capacity to reproduce. Characteristics of Living Things
What are the seven charcteristics of Living Things? Feeding, Movement, Breathing or Respiration, Excretion, Growth, Sensitivity, Reproduction.
What are the basic needs of all living things? Most living things require food, water, sunlight, and oxygen to survive and grow.
They are determined by genes and so they are passed from parents to offspring. Heredity
In the 1800s, who discovered the fundamental mechanism by which traits are inherited? Gregor Mendel
How are traits are passed on from generation to generation? inheritance
This is a somatic cell division and goes through 1 stage. Mitosis
Cell division in which one cell divides into two daughter cells, each of which has the same genetic content as the original cell. The process of nuclear division resulting in two nuclei, each with a set of chromosomes equal to the parent nucleus. Is? Mitosis
This is a reproductive cell division and goes through 2 stages. Meiosis
Cell division in which one diploid cell divides into four haploid daughter cells. This produces great genetic diversity among an organism’s sex cells. Meiosis
During what process do rare changes in DNA result in genetic diversity? Meiosis
The life path of all living organisms have some aspects in common: birth, maturation, death. What is this? Life Cycles
What is deoxyribonucleic acid, its is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. DNA
Most DNA is located in … the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA)
A small amount of DNA can also be found in… the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).
The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases what are they? adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).
An important property of DNA is that… it can replicate, or make copies of itself
Each strand of DNA has… the double helix
The double helix can serve as … a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases.
The double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because? each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.
This occurs when the sequence of nucleotides—the A, C, G, T sequence—in an organism’s DNA is changed. Mutations
Genetic mutations may result from errors during… DNA replication or from exposure to mutagens (mutation causing agents) such as ultraviolet light, X-rays, chemicals
What are the ultimate source of all genetic variation, and so provide the raw materials for evolution and natural selection mutations
Mutations can affect proteins in what ways? (a)Point mutation-causes the substitution of one amino acid for another.
Mutations can affect proteins in what ways part 2? (b)Nonsense mutation- produces a stop codon, resulting in the production of a shorter protein.
Mutations can affect proteins in what ways part 3? (c) The insertion of a nucleotide causes a frame shift mutation that completely changes the sequence of amino acids in a protein
This is a molecular biology technique in which a mutation is created at a defined site in a DNA molecule, usually a circular molecule known as a plasmid Mutagenesis
This is traits that make organisms well suited to living and reproducing in their environments. Adaptation
What are the different Natural Selection modes? Directional selection, Stabilizing selection, Diversifying selection
This selects for organisms that differ from the population average. It causes the average trait in a population to shift. ex.the increase in beak size in a finch population on the Galapagos Islands following a drought Directional selection
This selects for organisms that have a trait at the population average. It causes the distribution of traits in the population to become narrower. An example of this selection is birth weight in humans. Stabilizing selection
This selects for traits at two extremes within a population. It causes the population to diverge in the trait. This selection occurs in the coloration of butterflies that mimic the appearance of two different toxic species. Diversifying selection
What is as Darwin put it-"evolution"—heritable changes in organisms over time, —had produced all the living forms on Earth. Descent with modification
Heritable changes in living organisms over time is? Evolution
Who proposed that evolution had produced all the living forms on Earth(that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers — all related.) Darwin
Fossil record that supports who's theory… The oldest known fossils are of prokaryotes, which biologists identify as the ancestors of all life. Darwin
One of who's theory is mammals and birds appear later in the fossil record than do fishes and amphibians, which is consistent with what biologists know about the history of life. Darwin
Fossil record that supports who's theory about scientists who study fossils have found transitional features that link older species to modern species. Darwin
The theory of evolution has been tested repeatedly against observations of the natural world, and has met the most rigorous standards of the scientific community. This is what? Evidence of Evolution
This is energy flows from the sun through living organisms and escapes as heat and elements like carbon and nitrogen are cycled between organisms and the environment. Energy Cycle
What are the parts of the energy cycle? Plants, sun, decomposers, & animal
This is a series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc. Food Chains
This shows the multiple interactions among the different types of organisms. These are generally a more realistic of the energy flow in the system. Most organisms eat more than one type of food and can be eaten by more than one type of predator. Food Webs
The ultimate source of energy is the sun, the ultimate fate of energy in ecosystem is for it to be lost as heat, energy and nutrients are passed from food source (plants & animals), decomposers remove the last energy from the remains of organisms. Called? Energy Flow
A situation where individuals of two species live in close association with one another which each is beneficial to the other and indeed may be essential to the life of the other. Is? Symbiosis
What is one benefiting and one suffering, most of the time called? Parasitism
These are all the organisms that live within a given area and all the abiotic features of their environment. Ecosystems
This is the thin outer shell of the Earth and the inner layers of its atmosphere; the place where all living systems are found. Biosphere
The study of how organisms interact with their environments is called? Ecology
This is the assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc. Classification
What makes use of multiple levels, which from largest to smallest. The Linnaean system of classification
What consists of(in order)the domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species? The Linnaean system of classification
The evolutionary history of species is called? A cladistic classification
What are the domains of life? Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Wide range of generally single-celled prokaryotic organisms is called? Bacteria
This consist of prokaryotic organisms, many of which are adapted to extreme environments. Archaea
What are organisms with eukaryotic cells. Eukarya
What are resistant to traditional antibacterial antibiotics but are sensitive to most antibiotics that affect eukaryotic cells Eukarya
Many types are beneficial to other life form is… Bacteria
Responds to stimuli through behavioral changes is… Bacteria
Small pieces of genetic material wrapped in a protein coat that infect and reproduce within host cells are called? Viruses
Some types cause common colds and influenza is… Viruses
Small, non-living infectious particle Viruses
Cannot reproduce without a host is… Viruses
Physics and chemistry, applied to Earth and its processes, make up ______—geology, meteorology, and oceanography this is called? Earth science
The science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth is called? Geology
This encompassess the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed Geology
A consolidated mixture of two or more minerals are called? Rocks
A naturally occurring solid material that has both a definite chemical composition and crystalline structure are called? Minerals
Rocks formed from the accumulation of weathered material carried by water, wind, or ice. Sedimentary Rocks
What are formed when layers of sediment build up, one layer atop another, creating pressure on the lowermost levels sufficient to compact the sediment into solid rock? Sedimentary Rocks
This rock is made from sediment that has eroded from other rock, usually due to mechanical or chemical weathering. Sandstone is an example. Clastic sedimentary rock
This rock is made of the sedimentary remains of living organisms, most often marine organisms whose skeletons and calcified remains have settled to the ocean floor. Biogenic sedimentary rock
Limestone is an example of ____ rock formed in this way. Coal is also a ____ rock, but it is not made of marine organisms, rather from the remains of tropical plants that have been subjected to great pressure. Biogenic sedimentary
This rock is made from sediment that is left when liquid solutions containing minerals (ocean water, for example) evaporate, leaving the sediment behind. Gypsum is an example it also called evaporite rock) Precipitate sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock tends to be the ______of the three major types of rock,and is the only type that _____________. softest/may contain fossils
Rocks formed by the crystallization of magma or lava is called? Igneous Rocks
Igneous Rocks formed belowground are called? intrusive or plutonic rocks
Igneous Rocks formed aboveground are called? extrusive or volcanic rocks
What is an example of intrusive igneous rock? Granite
What are two example of extrusive igneous rock? obsidian and basalt
Igneous Rocks are classified by their______. texture—the size of their crystals
These are the four categories of ______:1.Coarse-grained: crystals that are visible without a microscope. 2. Fine-grained: microscopic crystals. 3. Glassy: no crystals.4. Porphyritic: crystals of two different sizes igneous textures
Rocks made of pre-existing rocks that are altered by high pressure, high temperature, or hot chemical solutions to become more stable under new conditions is called? Metamorphic Rocks
A large percentage of Earth's crust is made of ____ and all formed ________. metamorphic rock, all formed belowground
What are 3 examples of Metamorphic Rocks? Marble, Gneiss, and schist
A model that summarizes the formation, breakdown, and reformation of rock as a result of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic processes Rock Cycle
Over time can one form of rock be transformed into one or more of the other kinds of rocks? Yes, Over time, each type of rock can be transformed into one or more of the other kinds.
What is the comprehensive geological theory stating that Earth’s outer layer is comprised of lithospheric plates that float on and move along with the plastic-like asthenosphere? Plate Tectonics
Theory of what explains the creation of a number of different types of landforms (mountain ranges, Volcanic and seismic activity, & oceanic islands). plate tectonics
Earthquakes and volcanoes are common where? tectonic plates border each other
Do tectonic plates separate (diverge) or move together (converge). yes, Convergent boundaries are formed by tectonic plates moving directly at one another and colliding. Divergent plate boundaries occur where two tectonic plates are moving away from each other.
What is it called when two tectonic plates are neither moving toward nor away from one another, but rather are sliding by one another laterally and they meet? a transform plate boundary
What are most often formed when two tectonic plates grind against one another, forcing the edge of one plate to rise over the edge of the other? Mountains
plates' movement in relation to one another are called? Plate Boundaries
What are the 3 types of Plate Boundaries? convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries
Slow changes by mechanical or chemical agents at or near Earth’s surface that disintegrate or decompose rock.(carrying of sediment in solution or suspension of water) Weathering
Is the mechanical weathering and breakdown of rocks. (Expansion and contraction of water that casuses rocks to fracture) Frost Shattering
Where does frost shattering occur? in joints or cracks in rocks in areas where the temperature fluctuates around 0oC. Warm temps. in daytime, water enters the cracks but during cold nights the water freezes inside the cracks it slowly widens the joints/cracks, and fractures.
This is the tearing away of particles of rock, soil, and other materials from a landform.(Breaking down of rocks into sediment by wind, waves, or water) Erosion
Settling out of sediment from wind or water. It is the stage in which eroded particles come to rest. Sediments are deposited in horizontal layers, with each successive layer younger than the one beneath it.(settling out of sediment from wind or water) Deposition
Movement of sediment by wind, waves, or water Transportation
a group or chain of islands clustered together in a sea or ocean Archipelago
a ring (or partial ring) of coral that forms an island in an ocean or sea Atoll
a body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf). Bay
a flat-topped rock or hill formation with steep sides. Butte
a deep valley with very steep sides – often carved from the Earth by a river. Canyon
pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river. Cape
a large hole in the ground or in the side of a hill or mountain. Cave
a body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. This is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through. Channel
a steep face of rock and soil. Cliff
A mountain pass. Col
The land mass on Earth is divided into this. The seven current ______are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. Continent
small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock. Cove
a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in this.It can be shaped like a triangle. Delta
a very dry area. Dessert
a hill or a ridge made of sand. They are shaped by the wind and change all the time. Dune
an imaginary circle around the earth, halfway between the north and south poles. Equator
where a river meets the sea or ocean. Funnel-shaped inlet of sea at the mouth of a river. Estuary
a long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs. Fjord
the scientific field that investigates how landforms are formed on the Earth (and other planets). Geomorphology
a natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground. Geyser
a slowly moving river of ice. Glacier
a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay). Gulf
a raised area or mound of land. Hill
a piece of land that is surrounded by water. Island
a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. It has water on two sides. Isthmus
a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast Lagoon
a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. Really huge ___ are often called seas. Lake
the angular distance north or south from the equator to a particular location. (Side to side) Latitude
the angular distance east or west from the north-south line. (Top to Bottom) Longitude
a type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers, pond, lakes and coasts. Its plants grow up out of the water. Marsh
a land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls – usually occurring in dry areas. Mesa
a very tall high, natural place on Earth – higher than a hill. The tallest on Earth is Everest. Mountain
Layer of glacial till Moraine
a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. It cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surface Ocean
a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides. Peninsula
flat lands that have only small changes in elevation. Plain
a large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land. Plateau
a small body of water surrounded by land. It is smaller than a lake. Pond
a wide, relatively flat area of land that has grasses and only a few trees. Prairie
a large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean. River
a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. It may be partly or completely surrounded by land. Sea
a wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coastline; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island Sound
the beginning of a river. Source
a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. Strait
a type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in it. Swamp
a stream or river that flows into a larger river. Tributary
a cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome. Tundra
a low place between mountains. Valley
a mountainous vent in the Earth's crust. When it erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth. Volcano
A crater that exceeds 1 kilometer in diameter. Depression caused by volcanic collapse. Caldera
a string of volcanoes. Encircles much of the Pacific Ocean. Ring of Fire
When a river falls off steeply Waterfall
an area of land that is often wet and are often low in oxygen. Wetland
The time scale that subdivides Earth’s 4.5 billion year history into time units of different sizes. Geologic Timeline
How does the geologic time scale divides the Earth’s history into time units of different size? Ma = millions of years ago
What are the four main units of the Geologic Timeline? Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
largest unit in geologic time. Phanerozoic – means visible life. Eon
characterized by differences among life forms: 3 ? under Phanerozoic Paleozoic literally means “time of ancient life,” Mesozoic means “time of middle life," Cenozoic means “time of recent life.” Era
characterized by differences among life forms Period
defined in terms of geological distinctions rather than differences among life forms. Epoch
What are the World’s Oceans? Atlantic, Arctic, Indian, Pacific, & Southern
the second-largest ocean on Earth, contains more salt per unit of volume than any of the other major oceans of Earth. Atlantic Ocean
the smallest and shallowest of Earth's oceans. The average temperature is approximately -2° Celsius, making it the coldest ocean Arctic Ocean
The third largest ocean in the world. It is rich with oil reserves; 40% of all the oil in the world tapped from offshore sources comes from the this Ocean, and oil pollution is a serious threat to ecosystems all over the region. Indian Ocean
Is the largest ocean on Earth covering approximately a third of the planet's total surface area. Around almost the entire circumference of the this Ocean lies the Pacific Ring of Fire Pacific Ocean
What ocean has the most islands, there are over 25,000 islands in this Ocean, more than all the islands in all the other oceans of the world combined. Pacific Ocean
Surrounding the continent of Antarctica, at the southernmost tip of the world. It has the strongest average winds on the planet. Southern Ocean
What ocean is threatened by increased ultraviolet radiation from the sun. This increased radiation is due to the ever-increasing hole in the ozone layer located over Antarctica. Southern Ocean
a continuous, directed movement of ocean water generated by the forces acting upon the water, such as the Earth's rotation, wind, temperature, salinity differences and tides caused by the gravitational pull of the Mo


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