3R Reduce, reuse, and recycle. Almost everyone has heard those three words but the environment that we live are acquiring more contaminated each twenty-four hours. In Malaysia, there is as one-year production of over 4 million metric tons of waste Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) . Exploit this waste stuff non merely maximises the usage of oil thenar, but besides helps continue natural resources and keep ecological balance.
Certain workmanship factors can be appreciable effects on the strength of block work such as wrong accommodation of suction rate in block, bond between the units of block and divergence from perpendicular plane or alliance. Therefore, meshing design is one of the better solutions for concrete blocks to work out this sort of craft installing job.
Interlocking lightweight concrete block can cut down constructing dead weight efficaciously and reduces transit costs and foundation burden demands. Furthermore, meshing lightweight concrete block is save clip to installing for building and allows many householders easy to make the work themselves. Interlocking lightweight concrete block provide better articulation between units of block because they are self alining and this is greatly increases the velocity of building. This is kill three birds is one rock for clip, cost, and quality. So the choice of size, form, organic structure and surface visual aspect of Interlocking block is a great determination for prevent all those all common defect.
To use waste material Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) and Styrofoam as lightweight sum at Interlocking lightweight concrete blocks.
To analyze compressive strength and denseness of lightweight concrete
To analyze Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) and Styrofoam as lightweight sum.
To analyze the factors affect the strength of block.
To bring forth the paradigm of Interlocking lightweight blocks.
Scope OF STUDY
The range of survey for this thesis is concerned about design of meshing lightweight blocks by utilizing lightweight stuff. The stuff utilizing is Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) and Styrofoam as lightweight sum. This research will cover on the public presentation ( strength and denseness ) , design, and production a paradigm of meshing lightweight concrete blocks.
Interlocking lightweight blocks is one of the edifice walls used as barrier to command mass, energy, and particulate flow both within and across the system.. The form of the Interlocking blocks is linguas on the top surface of the block and channels at the bottom surface of the block. The map of linguas and channels is to keep horizontal motion when puting the engagement block at the top of another without the usage of howitzer articulations to supply better bond between units of block and do the wall strong plenty to transport tonss. Besides, meshing block is a great innovation for building industry to salvage clip and easy labor installed the wall either stacked or running bond constellation. For the cost issue, meshing block is economical than conventional block due to no demand to high-wages skilled Masons and less howitzer to utilize. Therefore the edifice costs are lower than for standard masonry building.
Lightweight concrete can be defined as a type of the concrete which is lighter than conventional concrete denseness in the scope of 140 to 150ib/ft3 ( 2240to 2400 kg/mm3 ) . Lightweight concrete can be classs into three types which is no-fine concrete, aerated/foamed concrete and lightweight sum concrete. The chief fortes of lightweight concrete are it ‘s to take down denseness, basic strength ( no burden bearing wall ) and thermic conductivity. Its advantages of the lightweight concrete are reduced dead burden of the edifice, speed up building productiveness and managing cost. This is research is based on the public presentation of the lightweight sum concrete. Therefore, the lightweight sum concerned to utilize is wastes and recycled stuff due to publish on environmental saving and sustainability. Styrofoam and Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) is the great choice in this researched. In Malaysia, there is an one-year production of over 4 million metric tons of waste Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) . Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) sum has a unit weight of 500-600 kg/m3and this is about 60 % lighter compared to the conventional crushed rock sums Presently, there is besides an increasing demand for low-priced houses in Malaysia and hence Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) can be used as an option to the conventional sums in fulfil this demand ( D.C.L.TEO, 2006 ) . The behavior of Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) concrete in a marine environment was besides antecedently studied.
PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Chart 1.1 Proposed Research Methodologies
HOW TO GET INFORMATION
The information is classs to two classs which is primary informations and secondary informations. The information provides the really utile cognition, experience and briefs our heads to accomplish the purpose and nonsubjective easy and success.
Primary beginnings -Experiment
For acquiring more information, the experiments play the really importance and indispensable functions. Experiment can supply the accurate information and helpful for experiment to acquire the verification of the information. In order to acquire the correct informations for experiment bring to successful, the criterion of experiment method must be follow during the experiments. British criterion is one of the utile criterions to supply broad scope information and besides for international degrees. The experiment of the concrete testing will fix and making at the Laboratory in Tunku Abdul Rahman College.
Secondary beginnings -Literature reappraisal
Literature reappraisal is a secondary information beginning in the phase which is the information that has been gathered by research workers and recorded in books, articles, and other publications. Basically, this phase is concern to reexamine all the acquiring information related to the lightweight concrete and meshing sandwich block. For the relevant information, the beginning can acquire from conducted the mention book, newspaper, diary and web site. Analysis and summarized the information after collect all the related information from research. Therefore, the informations provide clear way for achieve the aim and knowing in this survey.
WHERE TO GET INFORMATION
Besides acquire the information from the web site, article books, diaries, and newspaper the experiment consequence besides is one of the rely beginnings. The experiment can supply the experiment consequences, hypothesis of the aim and conclude reply for the survey during the research lab experiments proving. Last, acquire the existent life experience from supervisor by conducted the interview and travel though the site visit.
WHAT TO GET INFORMATION
The information can acquire is primary informations when making the experiment, and secondary informations from web site, article books, diaries, and newspaper and etc. All the informations will utilize for summarized and analysis for the intent of achieve the aim of survey.
INTRODUCTION OF LITERLOCKING BLOCKS
WHAT IS AN INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK?
Harmonizing to the ( Sukri 2009 ) defined that “ meshing hollow nucleus concrete block that widely called meshing block have tongues on the top surface of the block and channels at the bottom surface of the block. The map of that lingua and channel is to keep horizontal motion when puting the meshing block on top of one another without the usage of howitzer articulations to do the wall strong plenty to transport tonss from the upper floor or slab similar to the conventional burden bearing walls. ” The design of meshing concrete block is the linguas on the top surface of the block and channels at the bottom surface of the block, is that they offer keys, which interlock with another blocks. Therefore, meshing block provides better jointing and adequate strength to back up the burden bearing walls. The meshing design techniques are really effectual to work out the craft job to guarantee the installing of block plants is under better quality. Besides, meshing blocks are different from the conventional blocks since they no demand use mortar to jointing. Because of these features, this is save clip and no demand engage high-skill workers when making the block work.
OIL PALM SHELL CONCRETE ( OPSC )
What is oil thenar shell concrete? These mean the concrete utilizing oil thenar shell as lightweight sum. ( Abdullah 1984 ) was the first one to utilize Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) as lightweight sum ( LWA ) in Malaysia and proved that complete replacing of normal weight sum ( NWA ) with Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) is a possibility. Its province the oil thenar shell as lightweight sum to replace normal weight sum is possible and success techniques to do the lightweight concrete by blending of the cement, sand, oil thenar shell, and H2O. Harmonizing to ( U. Johnson Alengaram 2010 ) noted “ for conducted farther survey on the utilizing oil thenar shell and found out that similar to normal weight concrete ( NWC ) , H2O to cement ( w/c ) ratio affects the mechanical belongingss of palm meats shell-aggregate concrete. The 28-day compressive strength of Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) concrete varied between 5 and 25 MPa based on mix design. ” Based on the researched, the H2O cement ratio is one of the importances cardinal point to blend the oil thenar shell concrete because of the H2O ratio will direct impact the strength of the concrete with mechanical belongingss. Normally, the H2O to be usage is 0.40 to 0.60 water/cement ratio but merely 0.23 of the H2O is required for hydration and the excess H2O is for full hydration and compression of the concrete.
For the Styrofoam concrete, ( M. H. Ahmad 2008 ) noted that “ From the point been mentioned above we have to look for a possible lightweight concrete which is less H2O surface assimilation and therefore less cement content and hence heighten its matrix feature. The possible lightweight sums to be used as concrete constituent is Styrofoam. Styrofoam has hydrophobic features, non-absorbent, good insularity belongingss and closed cellular sums may hold the possible to be developed as good commercial lightweight sums and Styrofoam concrete produced denseness in the scope of 1297-1387 kg/m3 ” . Normally, the lightweight concrete demands are including lightweight, strength, sound insularity, heat insularity, and H2O opposition. Based on that, Styrofoam is one of the better stuffs for lightweight concrete because of lightweight, and strength strong plenty. Furthermore, due to Styrofoam is a hydrophobic feature, the H2O cement ratio is the chief factor demand to take more consideration when making the concrete. Last, the Styrofoam concrete is light weight about 45 % nest eggs in entire dead burden of a structural member compared to conventional concrete. Therefore, this is salvage the cost of foundation required more particular or strong technique to back up the burden of the edifice.
PROPERTIES OF THE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK
REQUIREMENT OF THE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK
The meshing concrete blocks have to supply the undermentioned maps ( John Straube 2006 ) :
The blocks as the external or internal walls need to enough strong to back up the inactive burden ( dead burden ) or dynamic burden ( unrecorded burden ) of the burden bearing or non-load bearing walls. These tonss have to be decently supported, resisted, and transferred to the edifice foundation.
Interlocking blocks must be able to command mass, energy, and particulate flows both within and across the system. These include H2O, air current, air, fume, smell, heat, visible radiation, noise, fire, blast, stealer, birds, and insects.
Finish ( aesthetics )
The finish map at the both of inside and outside is the aesthetics of the finish surface, the ocular, textural, and other aspect the interior decorator wishes to convey with the seeable component of the system.
Distribution of service
This map is related to the distribution of service through a edifice, both within a individual component, and besides multiple elements. Servicess like pipes, overseas telegrams may run through envelope component as to supply services to the country near by.
TYPES OF CONCRETE BLOCK
Presents, concrete block have create varies designs and difference strength since they are varies types, so harmonizing ( Michael Gage and Tom Krikbride 1980 ) notes that, “ with continues betterment in quality and design of concrete blocks and their wider scope of applications, BS 2028:1953 and BS 1364:1947 have been repeatedly revised and amended. Now, the two criterions have been incorporated in one edition BS 2028, 1364:1968 Precast Concrete Blocks. ” This is publication gives new defined for the block and specifies new strength classs and trial processs. The differentiation between type A, B and C concrete block, is based on the block denseness which is calculate by weight of the block by the overall volume ( include holes and pits ) . See table 1.
Minimal mean compressive strength ( N/mm2 )
Maximum permitted drying shrinking
( per cent )
Not less than 1500kg/mm3
less than 1500kg/mm3 but more than 625 kg/mm2
less than 625 kg/mm3
less than 1500kg/mm3 but more than 625 kg/mm2
less than 625 kg/mm3
Transverse interrupting burden is specified ( varies with size of block )
Table 1 sum-up of chief demand of BS 2028, 1364 ( published by courtesy of BSI )
CONCRETE BLOCK-TYPE A
For the type A concrete block, by and large is used in the edifice including usage below land degree damp-proof class. The concrete block must be of heavy concrete or one of the denser lightweight sums.
CONCRETE BLOCK- TYPE B
For the type B concrete block, by and large is used in the edifice including usage below land degree damp-proof class in internal walls, and the interior foliage of external pit walls. The concrete block must be of heavy concrete or one of the denser lightweight sums. Normally, should be solid hollow or cellular block made with heavy sum and mean compressive strength non less than 7.0 N/mm2.
CONCRETE BLOCK- TYPE C
For the type c concrete block, by and large is used in the edifice which is non burden bearing walls such as the dividers and panels in framed building. The intent merely for constructing insularity, coating ( aesthetics ) and service ( privateness ) but no for back uping the edifice burden.
FACTORS AFFECT THE STREHGHT OF BLOCK
The common defects originating from the production procedure which will impact the strength of the concrete block such as the defects of size, defects of form, defects of organic structure, and defects of visual aspect.
DEFECT OF SIZE
For the defects of the size, by and large defects are oversized and undersized of concrete block caused by pool stuff readying, and faulty mold. The wall will uneven due to the blocks size is non unvarying to make the construction bond. This will impact construction burden can non reassign decently of the wall.
DEFECT OF SHAPE
Defect of form, is the form which is difference with the existent accurate form to suggest. Normally causes the misshapen of block are the hapless readying of the mold, mistakes of stacking, unsmooth handling and uneven drying.
DEFECT OF BODY
Common defect of the organic structure is faults in the natural stuff organic structure can do the defect go on such as snap, bloating and laminations. This sort of defect will do the block interrupting easy with the spread on the surface.
DEFECT OF APPEARANCE
The defect of the visual aspect is the surfaces of the block have a bubble or the honey comb form. Honey comb is a nothingness on the outside of a concrete face. When the concrete is non vibrated decently during installing, honeycomb will organize. This is a serious defect, since cut downing the strength of block.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTERLOCKING LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
ADVANTAGES OF INTERLOCKING LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
Harmonizing to researched ( Msesut Asik 2006 ) noted that, “ lightweight concrete lower dead burden: Economy in the structural can be achieved due to the reduced dead burden, peculiarly for longer span Bridgess. ” Lightweight concrete is light in weight than convention concrete weight ; hence reduced the dead burden of the concrete for the edifice for back uping and reassign the burden.
( Msesut Asik 2006 ) noted that, these nest eggs can besides be reflected in the cost of foundations ( peculiarly where piles are required ) , and in formwork and false-work demands. The igniter weight besides consequences in nest eggs in the handling and transit of stuffs, and pre-cast elements, etc. The lighter weight can allow the usage of longer spans with a attendant decrease in the figure of supports required. ” Lightweight concrete normally will be utilizing the recycle stuff as lightweight sum to replace the normal weight sum since which to salvage the cost of the stuff and environment. Besides, the concrete blocks are lightweight and precast, therefore they is consequences in nest eggs in the handling and transit of stuffs, and pre-cast elements.
Harmonizing to the meshing lightweight concrete block advantages ( Bankole-Ojo 2008 ) noted that, “ hollow engagement lightweight concrete block, compared to excavate concrete blocks, is that they offer keys, which interlock in the other blocks. Thus these walls offer more opposition to shear and edifices would be even stronger. ” The interlacing block provides the forms of linguas on the top surface of the block and channels at the bottom surface of the block. The advantage of this technique is provides the better jointing with another block with accurate horizontal alliance when making block work.
Without the demand for high-waged skilled Masons ( except for the basal class ) , by salvaging cement ( less howitzer ) and with the velocity of building, the edifice costs are lower than for standard masonry building. The meshing concrete blocks are no demand skill worker to installation because the interlacing design technique provides general worker easy and convenience to put in the block works with better alliance and jointing. Extra costs are saved by constructing burden bearing walls, alternatively of infill walls between structural models.
DISADVANTAGES OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
Harmonizing to researched ( Msesut Asik 2006 ) noted that, the disadvantages is “ Reduce opposition to locally concentrated tonss as they occur at pre-stressing anchorages or bearings, hence increased restricting support is required, lightweight concrete is more brickle because of high strength cement paste. ” The lightweight concrete demand to supply more support to work out the concrete strength job because the concrete weaker when burden is concentrated. The lightweight concrete is utilizing the high strength cement paste. Therefore this is brickle easy.
The meshing concrete blocks are no demand skill worker to installation because the interlacing design technique provides general worker easy and convenience to put in the block works. But still necessitate to supply certain sum of preparation is required to guarantee that the walls are decently aligned and no spreads are left. Because the technique is still considered new to worker comparison to conventional block plants. Besides, meshing block is better in jointing and alliance but the articulations are non wholly immune to weave and rain incursion, hence, stick oning the inside wall surfaces is normally necessary.
The research methodological analysis that will carry on for my undertaking thesis is laboratory experiment stuff testing and application. The undertaking thesis is carried out at the Tunku Abdul Rahman College research lab.
OIL PALM SHELL CONCRTE
Oil thenar shell concrete is blending of cement, sand, sums and H2O. But the sum to be usage is oil thenar shell to replace normal weight sum. Based on ( Abdullah 1984 ) was the first one to utilize Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) as lightweight sum ( LWA ) in Malaysia and proved that complete replacing of normal weight sum ( NWA ) with Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) is a possibility. The oil thenar shell as lightweight concrete is possible and successfully to turn out that can utilize for the edifice envelop. In Malaysia, there is an one-year production of over 4 million metric tons of waste Oil Palm Shell ( OPS ) . Therefore oil thenar shell is really common stuff that can be easy get from everyplace, immense sum and cheaper. For this undertaking thesis, that will to make the comparing of strength and denseness between oil thenar shell lightweight concrete ( OPSLC ) and normal weight concrete ( NWC ) .
PROCEDUCE TO CAST OIL PALM SHELL CONCRTE
The components of oil thenar shell concrete to be use include Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) , oil thenar shell, sand and H2O. Normally the oil thenar shell surface is still surfacing with some oil, hence pre-treatment to take the surface oil is necessary. The methods to be use include natural weathering, boiling in H2O, rinsing with detergent. After removed the oil thenar shell surface oil, the selected sum size will be done by sieve analysis. For the recommended from researched, the size of sum which go throughing through the 12.5mm screen and retained on the 4.75mm screen was used. For the experiment, oil thenar shell concrete blending ratio will be proposed such as 1:1:2, 1:1:3 and 1:1:4 ( cement: sand: ops sum ) .
Styrofoam concrete is blending of cement, sand, styrofoam s and H2O. The Styrofoam will be usage to replace normal weight sum. Based on, ( M. H. Ahmad 2008 ) noted that, he said the Styrofoam is hydrophobic features, non-absorbent, good insularity belongingss and closed cellular sums may hold the possible to be developed as good commercial lightweight sums. But the job of blending Styrofoam concrete is water/cement ratio because of Styrofoam is hydrophobic features, and non-absorbent. Therefore the H2O cement ratio to be usage is less than conventional concrete commixture method. Due to these characteristic, Styrofoam is really hard to blend with cement and sand. Therefore, from the researched find out the extra of the adhesive stuff can increase the plasticizer of the concrete and work out this sort of the job.
PROCEDUCE TO CAST STYROFOAM CONCRETE
The components of Styrofoam concrete to be use include Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) , Styrofoam, sand and H2O. The size of the Styrofoam to utilize is approximative 3mm to 5mm which is Styrofoam beads. Due to Styrofoam is a hydrophobic characteristic since they are no absorber of H2O, therefore the water/cement ratio is less than conventional concrete required. Besides, the compression of the Styrofoam concrete for experiment regular hexahedron is by utilizing quiver machines or manus compression. The compression of the Styrofoam concrete can non by utilizing packing rod because of the Styrofoam will damage the Styrofoam constituents. From the researched, the recommend H2O cement ratio to be for Styrofoam concrete is 400 to 500ml.
Lightweight concrete is a concrete which is light by utilizing the lightweight stuffs to replace the conventional stuffs. Therefore, the denseness of the lightweight concrete is depended on the stuff to be usage. The different type of the lightweight stuffs will find the different densenesss. Last, the denseness of the lightweight stuffs is importance to the concrete because the denseness of the concrete will impact the strength of the concrete. Referred to the Neville ( 1995 ) , normally the denseness lightweight aggregative stuff is scope between 300 to 1850 kg/m3. The computation the denseness is based on weight and size of the concrete. The method and expression to find the denseness of the lightweight concrete will demo in the appendix 1.
Compressive strength is one if the primary belongingss to guarantee the strength of the concrete. They are many ways to prove the compressive strength of the concrete which include destructive and non destructive trials. From the undertaking thesis, the method to be usage for the lightweight sum concrete is destructive trial which is cube trial. The ground of taking this method is accuracy, easy and convenient due to the size of regular hexahedron is little. Furthermore, it is used as the standard method of step compressive strength for the quality control intents ( Neville, 1994 ) . The process of compressive strength trial will demo in the appendix 2.
Devising OF PROTOTYPE-INTERLOCKING BLOCK
For this phase, the oil thenar shell concrete and Styrofoam concrete as the lightweight sum concrete to bring forth meshing blocks. The type of concrete block design is hollow concrete block which is has one or more big pits which pass through the block. The intent of hollow concrete block is to cut down the weight of the concrete block and supply a hole at the center for allow support steel saloon base on balls through it.