Favoured with a alone geographical location and varied landforms. India is home to about one tierce of known life signifiers in the universe. There are over 500 species of mammals and 2060 species of birds that are genuinely Indian.
Rapid growing of human and livestock population since the bend of the century and the attendant force per unit area on land due to development hold taken an progressively heavy toll on the state wilderness. One of the major menaces confronting wildlife is the devastation of its home ground through human development activities: agribusiness. urban colonies. roads. dikes and mines. have all contributed to the loss of home ground. Another job is the atomization of the ecosystem into packages excessively little for wildlife to utilize. In recent old ages illegal trade in tusk. horns. fells. plumes and variety meats has brought many species to the brink of extinction. This century entirely India has seen the extinction of many species. among them the runing leopard ( chetah ) and the white winged wood duck.
The legion menaces confronting our wildlife have created consciousness for the pressing demand for preservation. It has become clear by now that wildlife is an of import biological. economic and recreational resource that has to be maintained through careful direction. Conservation in this context is understood as a doctrine and policy of pull offing the human usage of environment so that it may run into the demands and aspirations of present and future coevalss. One of the basic rules of wildlife preservation involves supplying equal natural nutrient and shelter to keep population of each species in a given home ground. For this intent the authorities has created and developed national Parkss and sanctuaries where threatened species can be preserved. Other preservation steps involve research and surveies of wild animate beings and their home ground. their biological demands. nose count operations. betterment of home ground. and effectual steps to command poaching.
The root-needs for preservation can be found under assorted keywords like. aesthetics. economic sciences. inter-dependence. and moralss. Everyone understands the loss of scenery when woods or hills have to do topographic point for roads or irrigation strategies. Similarly. we may be cognizant of the economic deductions of overexploitation of natural resources. By taking a broader position of the inter-relationship between natural phenomena. we must gain the wide-ranging deductions of local actions. as nature has no boundaries. For illustration. the release of pollutants in a river may impact fish that may be the chief beginning of nutrient for migratory birds coming from far-off topographic points. Finally. at an ethical degree. it is indispensable that adult male realises that he is merely a really bantam portion of that immense an inexplicable mystifier called Nature. Nature existed for 1000000s of old ages before Man came to be? Nature does non necessitate Man. but Man needs Nature. This simple statement should be clear in our head when we deal with usage of resources and relation with other species.
Methodology In the first portion of the undertaking I have tried to obtain information on the jobs confronting wildlife and some of the preservation steps in the woods of Nagarole. Bandipur. Mudumalai and Wynad. Ten questionnaires were sent to research workers and naturalists working in these country. out of which? were returned. This was followed by visits to each of these Parkss or sanctuaries to discourse farther about preservation issues. I besides obtained an assignment to interview Sri S. K. Chakrabarti. Principal Chief Conservator of Forest. Wildlife. at the Aranya Bhavan. Karnataka Forest Department. I besides had extended treatments with Mr Madhusudan. research worker at the Asian Elephant Research and Conservation Centre. Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore and Mr E. R. C. Davidar. retired attorney and dedicated environmentalist. writer of the book Cheetal Walk.
The result of these questionnaires and interviews are presented in the following subdivision.
The 2nd portion of the undertaking deals with the jobs confronting the tiger and the elephant in our state. the struggles opposing adult male and wild animate beings. and the preservation measures taken by the authorities and non authorities administrations ( NGOs ) .
Questionnaire and Interviews Study of selected species Tigers The Tiger. one of the most olympian and Indian national animate being. is once more extremely endangered.
Biology and ecology Lttes are lone and extremely territorial animate beings. who prefer thick screen. heavy jungle and the dark to Hunt.
They are the biggest felids. the males weighing between 180 and 230 kilogram and the females around 100 kilogram. As title-holder huntsmans. they are at the top of the nutrient concatenation. The tiger needs to kill every 2-3 yearss and for every 20 efforts to kill 19 terminal in failure. His preferable quarry is the sambur cervid. but he besides hunts chital. barking cervid. wild Sus scrofa. and on occasion an elephant calf.
A tiger? s district demands certain of import things ; it must hold sufficient quarry animate beings throughout the twelvemonth. entree to H2O. and the propinquity to district of a tiger of the opposite sex. A male will keep a much larger district than a female. embracing the district of several females.
Past menaces At the beginning of the twentieth century. 8 sub-species of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams were found in Asia. from the Caspian Sea in the West to Eastern Siberia. China and Bali in the East. Today and the Eve of the new millenary. the Caspian. the Javanese and the Balinese Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams are nonextant and the state of affairs of the Siberian and South Chinese Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams has reached a critical phase as their population is excessively little for endurance. In fact the Bengal tiger ( Panthera Tigris ) is in the best place. holding the largest population distributed over India. Nepal. Bhutan and Bangladesh. India is estimated to keep 60 % of the universe? s tiger population.
At the beginning of the century. 40? 000 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams were rolling Indian jungles. The planetary population was evaluated at 100? 000. In the terminal of the 1960? s. when the manager of Delhi menagerie and the Bombay Natural Society carried separate studies. they both reached the same alarming decision: the figure of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams in India was around 2? 500 and was worsening fast. In 1969 the Bengal tiger was included in the Red Data Book of endangered animate beings produced by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ( IUCN ) .
During the past centuries. Indian princes took great pride in runing down the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams as trophies and for their teguments. British very important persons besides took portion in these shikari parties organised by the maharajas. Equally tardily as 1961. Prince Philip. who accompanied Queen Elizabeth II on a visit to India. shooting two Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams. These runing art reasonably much succeeded in pass overing off the Indian tiger? s population from the jungle.
More late large-scale loss of woods and tiger home ground has besides contributed to the diminution of tiger? s population. With the quickly turning human population. more and more woods were felled to do infinite for agricultural land and in the name of development undertakings such as dikes. mines. power undertakings. In Madhya Pradesh. the Indiara Sagar irrigation undertaking has destroyed 42? 000 hour angle of pristine wood ; likewise the two mega dikes of Sardar Sasarovar and Narmada are expected to submerse another 57? 000 hour angle of wood. Everywhere there are force per unit areas to denotify protected countries to suit these modern development undertakings. On the other manus. Indian human population has increased by 50 % in the last 25 old ages. seting an ever-increasing force per unit area on natural resources.
Add something about struggles with adult male: cattle lifting. toxic condition. Conflicts with adult male Project Tiger In response to the gravitation of the state of affairs. in 1973 the Indian Government launched Project Tiger with the full and dedicated support of the late Prime Minister Ms Indira Gandhi. That twelvemonth the estimated tiger population of India was merely 1827. and in the whole of Asia. 2900.
During the first twelvemonth of Project Tiger. 9 militias were constituted. together keeping 268 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams. The conflict to salvage the tiger is chiefly a conflict to salvage its home ground: that is why the undertaking scheme was to make militias. which would function as engendering nuclei. As Numberss increased. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams would migrate to next countries and spread. For this a sufficient figure of militias and a web of corridors were needed. Each modesty had to hold a nucleus country of 300 km2 wholly free from human perturbations. Around the nucleus country buffer zones were developed where wildlife was purely protected. but some controlled forestry operations were allowed. The figure of militias increased increasingly and in 1989. there were 18 militias with a population of 1327 Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams and the entire Indian population was estimated at more than 4000. Thus ab initio the undertaking was a great success.
However. from the get downing the Project Tiger had some drawbacks: the most of import was its failure to affect local people. who had been populating out of the wood for coevalss. roll uping nutrient. honey. thatch. fuel and even croping their cowss. Under the execution of Project Tiger. up to 100? 000 people were relocated with promises of better health care. new Wellss and better houses. Most of the clip. when these promises failed to happen. people felt alienated. To educate people and obtain their co-operation is one of the biggest challenges confronting the preservation motion. Another failing was the absence of research and deficiency of way in informations aggregation.
In malice of these jobs. the figure of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams increased steadily during the? 70s and? 80s. However. the 1993 nose count showed that in 23 militias. the tiger population was merely 1? 366 and the Indian population around 3? 750. bespeaking that it had declined during 1989-1993.
New menaces Unfortunately from the early? 90s. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams had to confront a new and more deadly menace to their endurance. A goad of elephant. rhino and tiger poaching occurred all over the state and a few people were arrested transporting tiger castanetss. While two decennaries ago. environmentalists thought that loss of home ground would be the most serious menace. they shortly had to gain that the demand for tiger castanetss and other parts was an even more serious menace.
Tiger parts are used to fabricate traditional Chinese medical specialties used non merely in China but in all Far Eastern states. Korea. Taiwan. Japan. Laos and Vietnam. An illegal trade towards China was established utilizing as chief path the high Himalayan base on ballss in Ladakh. Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Now a recent survey done by Mr Bittu Sahgal. editor of the magazine Sanctuary. indicates that this goad of poaching is straight linked to a planetary wildlife trade. which is 2nd merely to the illegal drug trade. The assorted groups covering in weaponries and drugs like diacetylmorphine besides deal now in tiger castanetss. tusk. bear gall vesica. etc. The economic liberalization policy introduced in 1991 had an unwanted and small known effect: diacetylmorphine and wildlife contraband have replaced gold as the premier mean of exchange for international runners. There is a definite link between international trade in weaponries. narcotics and wildlife. There is besides a definite nexus between the lumber and poaching Mafia and assorted rebellion motions. The function of arm rebellion and combativeness in the illegal poaching and trade of wild animate beings looks to be a known and good documented fact. The ULFA. Bodo. Naga have all at some clip used wildlife contraband money to fund their activities [ Menon et Al. 1996 ] . In Palamau Tiger Reserve ( Bihar ) . a robbery of 136 kilograms of tusk in 1995 revealed the engagement of the Marxist Communist Centre. a group linked with the People War Group of Andhra Pradesh.
The money earned thorough this contraband flows through black market channels to different parts of the state and abroad to buy sophisticated arms. high tech communicating equipment and conveyance. Unfortunately forest guards. officers and anti-poaching squads lack all this modern equipment. They have neither good ripples nor wireless sets to support wildlife and themselves against to a great extent armed packs. India has given itself a really good statute law to protect its forest and wildlife but he enforcement has much to be desired. For illustration. 75 % of the tiger militias do non hold an effectual armed work stoppage force for anti-poaching activities. neither sufficient legal assistance to cover with offenses and counter-offences.
Elephants Biology and ecology The Asiatic elephant is with the tiger the most olympian symbol of India? s rich wildlife. It is found in 13 South and South Eastern Asiatic states. i. e. India. Nepal. Bhutan. Bangladesh. Sri Lanka. Myanmar. Thailand. China. Laos. Cambodia. Vietnam. Malaysia and the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan in Indonesia. The estimation elephant population in Asia sums to 35? 000 to 50? 000 animate beings in the wild and about 15? 000 in imprisonment. India histories for about? ? Their distribution is represented on the bordering map.
Elephants live in little matriarchal herds of 5 to 10 persons dwelling of one or several grownup related cattles and their immature kids. The male stripling leaves his natal household at the age of 12 to 15 old ages and moves to populate a lone being.
The gestation period last about 22 months and an interval of 4 to 5 old ages is normal between break uping. Thus the reproduction rate is low. Elephant have a life span of 60 to 70 old ages.
Elephants spend more than 12 hours a twenty-four hours feeding. as they need to devour 250 to 300 kilograms of fresh fresh fish daily. Their nutrient consists of grasses. foliages. the root and foliages of bamboo and the bark of certain trees.
They show distinguishable seasonal motions and have an one-year place scope changing from 100 to 1000 km2 for household herds and up to 400 km2 for grownup bulls.
Unlike the African elephant. merely male Asiatic elephants have ivories.
Elephants in Southern India In South India. elephants are found in the Western Ghats and some adjoining hill scopes of the Eastern Ghats. in the 4 Southern provinces of Karnataka. Kerala. Tamil Nadu and more late Andhra Pradesh. The largest known population estimated at between 6? 300 and 10? 400 animate beings is spread over a big country covering the Bhramagiri. Nilgiris. and some parts of Eastern Ghats. and comprises several protected countries. The different protected countries are as follows: – Karnataka: Bandipur. Bannerghatta. Nagarhole National Parks Billigiri Rangaswamy Temple. Nugu. Bhramagiri and Cauvery sanctuaries – Tamil Nadu: Mudumalai Sanctuary – Kerala: Waynad Sanctuary – Andhra Pradesh: Kaudinya Sanctuary This big population likely holds the key to the long-run endurance of Asiatic elephants.
Another of import factor to be considered in elephant population survey is the ratio male / female. Studies done from 1980 onwards show that this ratio become more and more skewed due to increasing poaching of male elephants for their ivories. In 1981? 1983. the ratio for an grownup population was one male for 5 females in that part. By 1987 it had become 1:9 and by 1996 it had become even more unequal with a ratio of 1:12 to 1:15. The state of affairs in Periyar ( Kerala ) is even much worse with respect to the impact of tusk poaching. While in the early 70? s the sex ratio was 1:7. by the late 80? s it had dwindled to 1:120! with non more than 5 grownup bulls staying in the Periyar modesty in 1994-1995.
Past and present menaces As a bulk of populations are little. less than 100 persons. they are prone to extinction due to some factors linked to human intercession. such as poaching and loss of home ground. and some opportunity factors like drouth. demographic factors etc.
One of the most serious menace confronting Asiatic elephants throughout their scope is the loss and atomization of home ground and the attendant isolation of populations. During their seasonal migratory motions. elephants use twelvemonth after twelvemonth the same? corridors? in the jungle. Whenever the land is deforested by husbandmans or plantation owners or fenced by tourer resorts. like in the milieus of Masinagudi small town. which adjoins Mudumalai. the motions of elephants is greatly hampered. This frequently leads to open struggles with worlds. as elephants trespass these freshly imposed boundaries.
Hunting of elephants in India is a centuries old tradition despite the many spiritual intensions that these animate beings have and the love inspired by Ganesha. Despite the fact that elephant gaining control was prevailing throughout its scope. the hunting of elephants for athletics came into manner merely during the 17th and eighteenth century during British regulation. In Waynad one adult male is supposed to hold killed more than 300 elephants. Capturing elephants by driving them into a stockade was a well-used method known as Khedda. It led to many casualties. The last Khedda took topographic point every bit tardily as 1971 in Karnataka. It is estimated that between 1886 and 1986. more than 40? 000 elephants were either gaining controls or killed in India.
Poaching of elephants for tusk had been historically sporadic or of low strength in most portion of the state. However in the late 70? s and the 80? s a poaching moving ridge of some strength swept across South India. Prof. Sukumar. in 1989. estimated that poaching for tusk had reached alarming degrees with approximately 100 to 150 tuskers being lost yearly to poaching. In the 80? s 65 % of the elephant mortality in South India was due to poaching.
We can? t write about illegal poaching for tusk without adverting about the most ill-famed bandit of our South Indian woods. . Veerapan. Since the 70? s he has operated for sandalwood an tusk in the part stretching from Bandipur to Coimbatore. Veerapan is supposed to hold killed some 500 elephants during the 80? s and so switched to sandalwood smuggling. He besides masterminded the violent death of several constabularies and forest officers. and besides a particular undertaking force was constituted in 1987 to catch him. he is still eluding gaining control. His ill-begotten wealth has helped him secure high speed rifles and allegedly to purchase off politicians. high up constabulary officers and tribal leaders.
Conflicts with adult male A figure of elephants are killed every twelvemonth following struggles with worlds. Following the shrinkage of their home ground the struggles are bound to increase in the hereafter. Lone male elephants are frequently goaded towards cultivated land. demoing a fondness for finger millet Fieldss. Less often. little herds are besides found come ining Fieldss and reaping the harvests. Crop busting elephants are erstwhile shootings by husbandmans seeking to protect their crop. Crackers are frequently used to drive away the animate beings. but some of them acquire accustomed to them. In a figure of instances the struggle reaches such proportions that husbandmans do non waver to utilize their guns. A big figure of elephants captured in Koddagu territory of Karnataka showed multiple slug lesions. In Wynad. a big tusker. about 11 pess tall. was captured because of his harvest busting wonts: he had 25 slug lesions on his organic structure. Electric fence is another mean used by husbandmans to protect their Fieldss. frequently taking to the decease of animate beings by burning.
Rogue elephants. which repeatedly resort to manslaughter. hold to be shot by the wood section.
Conservation steps ( to be developped0 Conclusion 9to be developped ) Habitat preservation Need for local communities? engagement