Work Related Stress and It’s Management Sample Essay

This paper will discourse the subject of work-related emphasis and its direction. It will show a general debut or definition of emphasis and will discourse several subtopics related to work emphasis. This paper will show several subtopics including a theoretical account of emphasis known as the General Adaptation Syndrome. the causes of emphasis. the effects of emphasis. and how to pull off work-related emphasis. A solution for the job of work-related emphasis will be presented. This paper will show a solution that entails how to get by with emphasis. and how to extinguish. or at least cut down. the sum of work-related emphasis. In general. this paper will show what emphasis is. what causes work-related emphasis. what the effects of emphasis are. and how to cover with emphasis in the workplace.

Work-Related Stress and its Management
What is emphasis? Stress is by and large defined as “an adaptative response to a state of affairs that is perceived as challenging or endangering to the person’s wellbeing. ” Stress is besides a physiological and psychological status that prepares an person to accommodate to an environment that is hostile or endangering. Although emphasis is normally thought of as a negative experience. there is really another type of emphasis that is necessary and good. So there are truly two types of emphasis – hurt and eustress. Distress is what is normally known as a negative experience. It is the sum of difference between healthy and unhealthy physiological. psychological. and behavioural operation. On the other manus. eustress activates and motivates an person to carry through and win in disputing ends in life. In other words. eustress is a necessary portion of one’s life.

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For illustration. if an employee is working on an of import and ambitious undertaking at work. he or she will surely hold some emphasis. However. this type of emphasis could be eustress. This employee is motivated to carry through the end and besides realizes that the bets are high. The force per unit area of acquiring the occupation done right and on clip will do this individual to hold eustress. This “good” type of emphasis will trip and actuate the employee to acquire the occupation done and make his or her best on it. In general. hurt can be thought of as “bad stress” and eustress can be thought of as “good stress” ( Glinow & A ; McShane. 2012. p. 83-84 ) . This paper will be discoursing hurt in the workplace and how to get by with it. Stress is a general term that could use to other environments in life ; nevertheless. this paper will concentrate on work-related emphasis or “occupational emphasis. ”

An of import theoretical account of emphasis that explains the emphasis experience in more item is known as the General Adaptation Syndrome. Stress is how an single responds to a stressor. A stressor is something existent or imagined that causes emphasis ( Wikipedia. 2012 ) . Stressors can be physical or emotional events that are perceived as endangering to an person ( The Free Dictionary. 2008 ) . Acute stressors affect person in the short-run and chronic stressors affect person in the long-run. The General Adaptation Syndrome is a theoretical account that explains the stress experience of an person over a period of clip. This theoretical account consists of three phases – Alarm. Resistance. and Exhaustion ( the 3rd phase could be Exhaustion or Recovery ) . The first phase. Alarm. consists of two stages – Shock Phase and Antishock Phase. In the Shock Phase. an event or state of affairs occurs that shocks the person. In the Antishock Phase. a individual will react to the stressor or menace one time he or she realizes what the stressor is. In this stage. the individual is in a province of dismay.

The person’s degree of opposition to this stressor drops below normal ( Wikipedia. 2012 ) . The immune system is besides weakened in this phase which can do an person more prone to illness ( The Free Dictionary. 2008 ) . The 2nd phase. Resistance. is when an individual’s degree of opposition to the stressor additions above normal. The person is able to accommodate to the stressor. However. if the stressor persists. so the person will non be able to manage the emphasis for long. In this phase. the individual’s energy is being depleted. The 3rd and concluding phase. Exhaustion. is when an individual’s degree of opposition to the stressor decreases dramatically until it goes below the normal degree. In this phase. an individual’s energy has run out and he or she is unable to keep normal organic structure operation. If the stressor continues. long-run harm could happen to the person’s organic structure. The body’s immune system is weakened which can ensue in being more prone to sickness. An alternate to the Exhaustion phase is the Recovery phase. This phase occurs when an person is able to successfully get by with and get the better of the stressor ( Wikipedia. 2012 ) .

This paper will be specifically discoursing and analysing work-related emphasis. So. what is work-related emphasis? Work-related emphasis. besides known as occupational emphasis. is stress related to the workplace. Work-related emphasis can happen in an person when his or her workplace has a extremely demanding environment or occupation and he or she does non hold the ability to wholly cover with the demanding workplace or finish the demanding occupation ( Wikipedia. 2012 ) . There are several other factors that can do work-related emphasis which will be presented in this paper.

Now that a definition and theoretical account of emphasis have been presented. this paper will concentrate on the causes of emphasis. known as stressors. as it relates to the workplace. There are several factors that cause or contribute to work-related emphasis. Work overload is one peculiar cause of emphasis at work. An person can be stressed when his or her work load is excessively demanding and there is a high sum of clip force per unit area. In other words. holding a hard or big sum of work that has to be accomplished in a short period of clip can do emphasis in a worker. An employee can be stressed by experiencing pressured to acquire a hard occupation done by a certain clip that her or she feels is excessively shortly. If the public presentation outlooks and the clip allocated to finish a peculiar occupation are unrealistic. this can emphasize out an employee. Stress can besides happen in state of affairss where there is excessively much work for the figure of employees. Low undertaking control is another cause of emphasis at work. An person can be stressed when he or she does non hold adequate control over his or her work. For illustration. an employee has low undertaking control when he or she does non hold adequate control or influence over how the work is organized and performed or does non hold adequate say in work-related determinations. Stress besides occurs when the person does non hold adequate control over puting the deadlines for when occupations should be completed. does non hold adequate say in what degree of public presentation should be expected. and so on.

Bad work relationships can besides be a work-related stressor for an person. Most businesss involve covering with other people. Therefore. if an person does non hold good relationships with fellow colleagues or supervisors. this can be a cause of emphasis. If an person is non treated reasonably and is non good supported by his or her colleagues or supervisors. he or she will hold occupational emphasis. If a supervisor sharply manages the workplace. does non hold good leading accomplishments. is non understanding and supportive. discoveries mistakes in employees most of the clip. or harasses employees. this can do his or her employees to hold emphasis. If employees are non understanding and supportive. harass others. make non execute their just portion of the work load. or take the recognition for others’ work. this can do their colleagues to hold emphasis. Employees who feel isolated at work besides have emphasis. Job insecurity is another cause of work-related emphasis. Peoples prefer to hold a high degree of occupation security. non a low degree of occupation security.

Peoples would wish to experience assured that they will hold a occupation for a long period of clip and be able to physically last. Job insecurity and occupation alterations cause emphasis in persons. A feeling of occupation insecurity and the emphasis that consequences from it can be caused by holding a non-permanent occupation ( such as a fixed or impermanent term contract ) . and anticipating future occupation alterations. Missing a good work-life balance can besides be a stressor in one’s life. If there is non a good balance between the sum of work and personal life. so the force per unit areas of a hard work load can impact an individual’s personal or place life. As a consequence. the wellness of an individual’s personal or place relationships ( such as household and friends ) can be jeopardized. The factors that can do instability between work and life include long work hours ( including working at place ) . demanding work agendas that are inflexible. and tonss of work-related travelling. These factors can interfere with an individual’s personal life and endanger his or her relationships at place. An unequal degree of resources and communicating is a factor that can do work-related emphasis.

In order to expeditiously and efficaciously work in an organisation. employees need an equal sum of preparation. communicating. equipment. and resources. Employees need to be trained in order to cognize what they’re making and efficaciously execute their occupation and they need to hold the right equipment and resources available. In add-on. employees and supervisors need to be involved in an equal degree of communicating with each other. Employees need to cognize what is traveling on in the organisation so they have the appropriate cognition to work efficaciously. Employees besides need to hold feedback provided to them about their public presentation in order to cognize if they are executing good or ill. This feedback information can assist employees cognize why they are making good or cognize how to better their public presentation if they are executing their occupations ill. If any of these factors related to resources and communicating in an organisation are missing or are non at an equal degree. so the person or persons working in this organisation will see occupational emphasis. An unequal sum of wage and benefits could do an single to see emphasis.

If an employee is working hard and non having what he or she deserves. so he or she will be stressed out. Besides. certain factors of a occupation itself and the work environment can do emphasis in an person. These peculiar factors include a steady occupation that will non alter in a long period of clip. uncomfortable or risky physical working environment. fright of physical force. close monitoring of occupation public presentation. the organisation altering for no rational ground. a occupation that is deadening and insistent. covering with clients and clients that are hard or awful. and a deficiency of occupation satisfaction. All of these factors can be work-related stressors in one’s life ( University of Cambridge. 2009 ) . Other factors that can do stress include long work hours ( at work and/or at place ) . holding a occupation that is either excessively easy or excessively difficult. and non experiencing valued as an employee ( Bupa. 2011 ) . A major beginning of work-related emphasis is workplace torment. Harassment is inappropriate verbal or physical workplace behavior that is based on race. colour. faith. sex. national beginning. age. or disablement ( mental or physical ) .

Harassment in the workplace can make a hostile. intimidating. and violative work environment that interferes with the work public presentation of an employee. An employee can be harassed by directors and/or colleagues. Harassment can be a major stressor that induces emphasis in an person ( Federal Communications Commission. 2012 ) . Another beginning of work-related emphasis is workplace incivility. Workplace incivility is defined by The Academy of Management Review as “low-intensity aberrant behaviour with equivocal purpose to harm the mark. ” In other words. incivility is inappropriate behaviour with purpose to harm an employee. Workplace incivility involves behavior or carry on by a director or colleague that is ill-mannered and disrespectful towards an employee or colleague. Incivility includes such inappropriate behaviours as contemptuous remarks to an employee. debasement of an employee’s work. distributing false rumours. socially insulating an employee. and bad manners. In general. workplace incivility is behavior or behaviours that are barbarian. Workplace incivility is a stressor that can bring on emphasis in an person ( Wikipedia. 2012 ) .

Now that the causes of emphasis or stressors have been covered. the effects of work-related emphasis will be analyzed. Stress induced in an person by inauspicious conditions at the workplace that have been discussed can do an person to endure effects. Work-related emphasis can take to effects that affect both the persons in an organisation and the organisation itself. Work-related emphasis can take to effects that consequence persons in four countries or dimensions – physical. emotional. rational. and behavioural.

The first class of effects of work-related emphasis includes physical jobs. Stress at work can do an person to hold sleep jobs ( such as sleep perturbations ) . concerns. GI disturbance. and raised blood force per unit area which can take to cardiovascular disease. The 2nd class of effects of work-related emphasis includes emotional jobs. Stress at work can do an single to see anxiousness. crossness. depression. and emotional liability. The 3rd class of effects of work-related emphasis includes rational jobs. Work-related emphasis can do an single to see a lower concentration degree. deficiency of motive. trouble in believing clearly. loss of memory. and doing hapless or unwise determinations. The 4th class of effects of work-related emphasis includes behavioural jobs. Work-related emphasis can do an person to carry on substance abuse ( such as intoxicant maltreatment ) . inappropriate behaviours. societal isolate oneself. and to non be prompt or precise ( unpunctual ) .

In add-on to impacting persons in an organisation. emphasis can take to effects that affect the effectivity and efficiency of an organisation. These inauspicious organizational effects include high absenteeism. high labour turnover. hapless clip maintaining. inefficient public presentation and productiveness. low workplace morale. deficiency or low degree of motive. more employee ailments. and more studies related to ill-health and accidents ( University of Cambridge. 2009 ) .

Now that a definition and theoretical account of emphasis. the causes of work-related emphasis. and the inauspicious effects of emphasis have been presented. this paper will now discourse how to pull off work-related emphasis. In other words. solutions of how to get by with the job of work-related emphasis will be provided. There are several solutions on how to get by with work-related emphasis that will be discussed. There are three cardinal stairss that can be taken in order to get by with work-related emphasis. These stairss will assist employees cut down the sum of work-related emphasis they are sing. First. employees need to be separately responsible for bettering their physical and emotional wellness. Second. employees need to place and extinguish bad wonts and negative attitudes that will increase their emphasis. Third. an single demands to larn and utilize better communicating accomplishments in order to better dealingss with his or her directors and colleagues. There are several of import solutions or tips that employees can implement in order to efficaciously get by with work-related emphasis.

This paper will discourse six of import solutions an person can utilize in order to get by with work-related emphasis – recognize warning marks of inordinate emphasis at work. cut down occupation emphasis by taking attention of his or herself. cut down occupation emphasis by prioritising and forming. cut down occupation emphasis by bettering emotional intelligence. cut down occupation emphasis by interrupting bad wonts. and larn how directors or employers can cut down occupation emphasis. Each solution will now be discussed in more item. The first solution is that employees need to acknowledge signals of inordinate work-related emphasis. If an single feels overwhelmed at the workplace. he or she will lose assurance and go disquieted or experience withdrawn. This will do the employee’s work public presentation and effectivity to worsen. Therefore. it is indispensable that employees identify warning marks of work-related emphasis and non allow them acquire out of manus. Remember. non merely will intense or chronic work-related emphasis consequence in hapless work public presentation. it will besides do an person to hold hapless physical and emotional wellness.

Therefore. employees need to larn to acknowledge marks of inordinate work-related emphasis. Examples of marks of inordinate work-related emphasis include experiencing dying. cranky. or down. losing involvement in work. holding sleep jobs. sing weariness. holding problem concentrating. sing musculus tenseness or concerns. holding tummy jobs. sing societal withdraw. and utilizing alcoholic drinks or drugs to get by with emphasis. Employees need to be cognizant of these tell-tale marks of occupational emphasis. Examples of causes of inordinate work-related emphasis include the fright of being laid off. holding to work more ( such as working overtime ) . being pressured to hold higher work public presentation. and being pressured to hold the best work public presentation on a regular footing. The 2nd solution is employees need to take attention of themselves in order to cut down occupational emphasis. Occupational emphasis is a serious job that can cut down an individual’s work public presentation. do personal life jobs. and cut down his or her physical and emotional wellness. Therefore. employees need to make something about occupational emphasis.

Taking attention of his or herself means an single demands to be cognizant of the status of and better his or her physical and emotional wellness. Having good physical and emotional wellness is indispensable to get bying with emphasis. If employees have strong physical and emotional wellness. so they will be able to better manage and header with work-related emphasis. There are four tips employees can follow in order to better their physical and emotional wellness and thereby efficaciously manage and header with occupational emphasis. First. they need to exert on a regular basis. Although regular exercising can be hard and deadening. it is really a really effectual tool that relieves emphasis. The best thing to make is aerophilic exercising ( this increases the bosom rate and perspiration ) which will better a person’s temper. energy degree. concentrate degree. and degree of physical and emotional relaxation. Second. employees need to eat decently.

They need to eat healthy nutrients that will assist them get by with emphasis more efficaciously. Implementing a healthy diet can assist an single trade with stress each twenty-four hours at work. Third. employees need to avoid imbibing intoxicant and smoke. Drinking excessively much alcoholic drinks can increase anxiousness. Drinking excessively much can besides ensue in intoxicant maltreatment and dependance. Nicotine. the stimulation in smoke merchandises. can besides increase anxiousness. Fourth. employees need to acquire adequate slumber. Not acquiring plenty slumber can ensue in being more vulnerable to sing emphasis. If employees are good rested. so they will be better able to get by with emphasis. It is recommended that an single slumber eight hours a dark. The 3rd solution is employees need to prioritise and form in order to cut down work-related emphasis. In order to efficaciously get by with emphasis. employees need to prioritise and form their assorted occupation duties. An employee demands to make up one’s mind which undertakings are more of import or pressing to finish and form those assorted undertakings. There are four solutions related to clip direction that will assist employees cut down emphasis in the workplace. First. they need to make a balanced agenda. An employee demands to make a agenda in order to form when he or she will make assorted occupation undertakings. The agenda should besides be good balanced. There needs to be a good balance between occupation undertakings and downtime ( such as personal life and work interruptions ) .

Second. employees shouldn’t over-commit themselves. Employees shouldn’t give themselves excessively much to make in a given period of clip ( such as a twenty-four hours ) . Assorted undertakings employees assign themselves may take longer than they think and they may stop up acquiring overwhelmed and hence have emphasis. If a given agenda has excessively many undertakings for a given sum of clip. so either put unimportant undertakings at the underside of the list or extinguish them. Third. leave early and acquire to work early. Don’t show up on clip or tardily because this will do an person to be in a haste and acquire stressed. Alternatively. employees should acquire to work early ( even if it is merely 10-15 proceedingss early ) so that they can acquire started with work in a more relaxed temper and thereby cut down emphasis. Fourth. employees need to be after regular interruptions at work. Throughout the twenty-four hours at work. take short interruptions every so frequently in order to take a remainder and cut down emphasis. Relaxing at regular intervals will really assist an employee work more fruitfully. non less. There are besides four solutions related to task direction that will assist employees cut down emphasis. First. prioritise undertakings by doing a list of undertakings that need to be completed in order of importance ( with the most of import at the top and the least of import at the underside of the list ) . Complete the most of import undertakings first. and so make the others.

Besides. it is a good thought for an employee to finish hard or unpleasant undertakings foremost because this will do the remainder of the work twenty-four hours more pleasant when he or she knows that a hard undertaking has been accomplished and is out of the manner. Second. employees need to interrupt undertakings into little stairss. Take a big and hard undertaking and split it into smaller undertakings or stairss. Complete the undertaking one measure at a clip instead than seeking to make it all at one time. This will ensue in being less overwhelmed and thereby cut down emphasis. Third. employees need to depute duty. An single doesn’t ever have to make every small thing his or herself. If there are stairss that others are capable of making. so allow them make it. Trying to hold excessively much control over every small measure can overpower an employee and consequence in emphasis. Fourth. be willing to compromise. If an employee asks others to alter their programs related to occupation undertakings. so he or she should be able to alter his or her undertakings programs to suit others’ agendas. If an employee and another colleague can compromise a small so both of them will cut down their ain emphasis. The 4th solution is to better emotional intelligence in order to cut down work-related emphasis.

Emotional intelligence is the ability of an person to pull off and utilize his or her emotions in a positive and appropriate manner. Emotional intelligence involves efficaciously pass oning with others. deciding differences with others. understanding the feelings of others. and finally cut downing emphasis. Emotional intelligence is the ability of an person to comprehend and pull off his or her emotions and the emotions of others. There are four constituents or facets of emotional intelligence – self-awareness. self-management. societal consciousness. and relationship direction. Self-awareness is an individual’s ability to comprehend his or her emotions and their influence. and utilizing his or her gut feelings to do determinations. Self-management is an individual’s ability to pull off his or her emotions and behaviour and alteration with altering fortunes. Social-awareness is the ability to efficaciously act upon others and their emotions and manage struggle. There are five of import accomplishments that employees need to larn and utilize in order to derive more emotional intelligence and efficaciously pull off work-related emphasis.

The first accomplishment employees should hold is an consciousness of when they are stressed. An employee needs to cognize when he or she is stressed. cognize how he or she responds to that stressor. and cognize what animal cues composures and stimulate his or herself. The 2nd accomplishment an person should hold is to cognize his or her internal emotional experiences in order to efficaciously pull off his or her emotions. Employees need to pull off their ain emotions because those emotions affect their ain ideas and behaviour. The 3rd accomplishment is to be cognizant of and utilize gestural cues and organic structure linguistic communication. What a individual says is non ever every bit of import as how that individual says it. How an person says something besides includes the gestural content of his or her message which includes eye-contact. facial look. tone of voice. position. gesture. and touch. Peoples to whom a individual speaks with can construe the gestural content of that person’s message in a positive or negative manner. Therefore. it is indispensable that employees know how to efficaciously pass on with others utilizing these gestural cues. This accomplishment besides means that a individual should be cognizant of others’ usage of gestural cues and understanding the significance of those gestural cues in relation to the message they are directing to him or her.

The 4th accomplishment is to cover with challenges utilizing wit. Humor and express joying are really effectual tools that cut down emphasis in a state of affairs. Of class. there are times when wit or laughter is non appropriate such as when an employee laughs at person else’s disbursal. The fifth accomplishment is to decide struggles positively. Deciding struggle with others in a positive and appropriate manner can assist others construct trust in an person and cut down emphasis. When trying to decide a struggle. avoid concentrating on past injury feelings. but alternatively. concentrate on the present. An employee should understand his or her emotions and listen to both the words and gestural cues being used in the state of affairs. The 5th solution is to interrupt bad wonts in order to cut down work-related emphasis. There are certain wonts ( negative ideas and behaviour ) an employee may hold that attention deficit disorder to his or her emphasis at work. It is indispensable that these bad and self-defeating wonts are removed. There are four things employees need to make to extinguish self-defeating wonts. First. they need to avoid perfectionism. No undertaking is perfect ; hence. don’t get stressed seeking to make every undertaking with a degree of flawlessness.

Alternatively. an person should seek to make his or her best on each undertaking. Second. employees need to be orderly and organized. Don’t be a clip wastrel. Get to work early. Employees should guarantee that their country in the workplace ( such as their desk ) is non mussy and disorganised. Clean the country up and acquire it organized. Messiness and disorganisation merely add to an employee’s emphasis at work. Employees need to be after what tasks they will make each twenty-four hours utilizing a lists of points to make. Third. employees need to halt thought negatively about everything. In other words. believing negatively about every state of affairs and undertaking can do emphasis. Alternatively. employees should believe positively about their work. This will assist cut down emphasis. Fourth. do non seek to command what is unmanageable. Many state of affairss and persons at work are beyond an employee’s control. Therefore. don’t emphasis out about them. Alternatively. an employee should merely concentrate attending on things he or she does hold control over. There are four ways to chase away emphasis. First. employees need to take a short interruption one time in a piece to acquire off from work. Second. an employee needs to speak about his or her state of affairs to person.

Informing person an single trusts about his or her ideas and state of affairs can assist cut down his or her emphasis and assist him or her feel better. Third. an employee demands to develop relationships with others at work. Bing involved in a friendly relationship with a colleague can assist an single cut down emphasis at work. If an employee discusses his or her state of affairs with another colleague. so he or she needs to be willing to listen to that co-worker’s jobs. Fourth. employees and employers need to utilize wit at the workplace. because wit can assist cut down emphasis. Of class. wit needs to be used suitably. The 6th solution is to larn how directors or employers can cut down work-related emphasis. Directors should make their best to cut down the emphasis of their employees at work. Directors should besides be an illustration to their employees. If a director handles state of affairss and jobs calmly and maintain his or her cool. so the employees will hold an easier clip making the same. There are three of import alterations in an organisation that directors need to implement in order to cut down work-related emphasis in the workplace. First. directors need to better communicating with employees. Directors need to pass on information to their employees to forestall them from experiencing occupation uncertainness.

Directors need to clearly specify the duties and functions of each employee. Directors besides need to pass on with their employees in a friendly and professional manner. non in a mean and disrespectful manner. All of these communicating patterns are really effectual at cut downing emphasis. If these communicating rules are non followed. so emphasis in the workplace will intensify. Second. directors should confer with with their employees. In other words. directors and employees need to be involved with each other a batch in determinations in the workplace. Directors should allow employees be involved in determinations that will impact their calling. Directors need to acquire advice from and negociate with employees about of import determinations at the workplace such as agendas. work regulations. the work load. and so on. Directors should guarantee that the work load is sensible and non impossible for employees to carry through.

Directors need to demo their employees that they are valued by offering wagess and inducements. complementing first-class work public presentation. and supplying chances for employees to work their manner up in their callings. Directors besides need to give employees more control over their undertakings at work. Third. directors should cultivate a friendly societal clime. Directors need to guarantee that the ambiance of the workplace is friendly. societal. and professional. Directors need to promote societal interaction among employees in the workplace. Directors should hold no tolerance for workplace torment. Finally. the actions of directors should be consistent with the values of the organisation. These actions and behaviours by directors are indispensable in order to cut down emphasis in the workplace and increase the occupation satisfaction of employees ( Segal. Smith. Robinson. & A ; Segal. 2012 ) .

Work-related emphasis is a serious issue that tarnishes an employee’s work public presentation and occupation satisfaction. Even worse. emphasis can harm an single both physically and emotionally. Therefore. it is indispensable that both employees and directors implement certain patterns and solutions in order to cut down or extinguish workplace emphasis and increase the public presentation and occupation satisfaction of employees. Several practical solutions that employees and directors can utilize in the workplace to cut down or extinguish emphasis have been discussed. Stress should non be the norm in the workplace. It is a job that needs to be solved suitably. By following the solutions presented in this paper. this job of emphasis can be dealt with.


Bupa. ( 2011. December ) . Work-Related Stress. Retrieved October 27. 2012. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bupa. co. uk/individuals/health-information/directory/w/stress-workplace Federal Communications Commission. ( 2012 ) . Understanding Workplace Harassment. Retrieved October 27. 2012. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Federal Communications Commission. gov/encyclopedia/understanding-workplace-harassment-fcc-staff Glinow. M. A. V. . & A ; McShane. S. L. ( 2012 ) . Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Segal. J. . Smith. M. . Robinson. L. . & A ; Segal. R. ( 2012. September ) . Stress at Work: Tips to Reduce and Manage Job and


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