when an image demonstrates considerable differences between the densities, the image is described as:
overall blackness of the film
radiographic density refers to the:
angled 5 degrees cephalad and centered to the inferior margin of the patella
On a basic AP exam of the knee, the central ray should be:
On a basic oblique of the foot, the______should be free of superimposition.
There are ______ tarsal bones in the foot.
Short scale contrast
When an image demonstrates only a few densities but there are large differences between the adjacent densities, the image is described as having:
there is emulsion on both sides of the film
What does it mean to say that radiographic film is “duplitized”?
Flourescence is responsible for how much of the image on the film?
radiographic film is sensative to light, radiation, and all of the following except:
small focal spot size, long SID, and short OID
Which of the following conditions contribute to increased recorded detail?
perpendicular to the center of the film entering the midshaft of the tibia
The cental ray on an AP lower leg is:
In order to better visualize the joint space in the AP projection of the knee, the central ray may be angled 5 degrees:
knee joint and distal 3/4 of the femur
This should be seen on the distal femur:
The standard screen against which others are measured is:
Which radiographic quality factor can be described as misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure?
greater and lesser trochanter
The 2 projections shown below the neck of the femur is called:
Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light?
This screen is twice as fast as a 100 RS screen:
a more horizontal and wide curve
Which of the following describe the characteristic curve of a film with wide latitude and longer scale contrast?
elongation and foreshortening
Which of the following is/are shape distortion?
decrease in exposure time (seconds)
If a radiographic image appears blurred, which exposure factor would be used to correct this problem?
lateral to the cuneiform bone in the midfoot is the:
every 3 months
how often should screens be cleaned and inspected?
x ray beam intensity and distance
the inverse square law governs the relationship between:
all of the above (entire digit, metatarsalphalangeal joint spaces, distal half of the metatarsals)
the structures that should be seen in a basic toe should include:
many shades of gray
Long scale contrast is
on a lateral knee, the knee should be flexed about:
both the camp coventry and the holmblad method are used to view what:
this projection provides an axial view of the patella:
what is the relationship between film latitude and contrast:
the heel bone is also called the
digits 2-5 of the foot have how many bones each?
tibia, fibula, both joints
in the lower leg AP and lateral views, these structures should be seen:
which of the following should you decrease to reduce magnification?
intensity of the beam
the SID affects the:
this is caused by random distribution of photons and appears as grainy spots on the image:
which structures lies anterior to the distal femur?
the lateral bone of the lower leg is the:
lateral malleolus and medial malleolus
on the AP projection of the ankle which of these items must be visible?
this is the “ankle bone”:
the SID for most projections of the lower extremity is:
angled 10 degrees cephalic
the central ray on an AP foot is:
femoral condyles and the tibial plateau
these meet to form the knee:
short scale of contrast (high contrast) is produced by:
contrast and latitude
the slope of the straight line portion of the sensitometric curve indicates the film’s:
this lies anterior to the distal femur:
greater the film speed, higher the film contrast, narrower the exposure latitude
the steeper the straight line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
the patella is a ____bone.
contrast is usually controlled by:
the CR enters perpendicular to the medial malleolus
which of the following is true regarding the correct positioning of the ankle for a lateral projection:
reduce the amount of exposure
intensifying screens are designed to:
size and shape
what are the two primary types of distortion:
in the lateral projection of the knee, which of these should not be seen:
intercondylar eminences are also called
the back of the cassettes has a layer of lead to prevent:
the prominence that inserts into the acetabulum is the ______of the femur.
protect film from exposure to light, prevent film from bending and scratching, hold and protect the intensifying screen
which of these is a function of the cassette:
make sure that film/screen contact is adequate
contact test mesh is used to
the color of light emitted by the screen phosphor
what is meant by the term spectral emission?
this is the term used to describe the “unsharp edges” of the body part on the film:
produce a radiographic image with more recorded detail
when comparing two intensifying screens of the same phosphor type, the screen with the smaller phosphor crystals will:
decreased recorded detail
a change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:
which of the following may be caused by poor film/screen contact?
if the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem:
the intertarsal joints are what type of joints?
this lies between the condyles of the femur, posteriorly:
distance from the object to the film
the OID is the:
increase SID and use small focal spot
if the OID can not be minimized by positioning, magnification can be reduced by doing the following:
density is controlled by:
what would be the result of increasing the OID from 2 inches to 4 inches?
in the holmblad method, the angle between the femur and the table should be:
perpendicular to the MP joint
the central ray on a basic toe exam is
the PA projection of the knee is usually done if this is of particular interest
on a lateral distal femur the leg should be flexed
angled so that the central ray passes between the patella and the distal femur
the cental ray using the Sunrise view of the knee is:
the plantar surface of the foot is in contact with the cassette
for an AP of the foot the foot should be situated so that
1-2 inches below the knee
on a distal femur view the bottom of the film is placed
in the holmblad method the angle between the femur and the table should be
at what temperature should radiographic film be stored?
inappropriate matching of film and screen increases the exposure required to produce an image, thus unnecessarily increasing the patients exposure
if a films spectral sensitivity is not matched to a screen’s spectral emission what is the consequences:
what is the appropriate humidity for proper film storage:
if an image were made using 500 mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75 kVp what would the mAs be for this exposure:
the bone that is proximal to the cuneiforms is the
x ray penetration
increase exposure time and increase mA
when using a fast screen how would you reduce quantom mottle:
what is the knob like protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia near the proximal end of the shaft.
the articular surface of each femoral condyle is cushioned by a C shaped cartilage called the
source image distance
the distance between the tube target and the IR is termed:
40 degree cephalic
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the axial projection of the calcaneus when the ankle is dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is perpendicular to the IR?
mA x time
the apex of the patella is on the proximal end of the patella.
in a distal femur exam, the bucky should be used.
the IR and film are the same thing.
tissue density and radiographic density are essentially the same thing
film should not be laid flat in storage
some people have a small sesamoid bone in the back of their knee called the flabella
the camp coventry method should always be done with a bucky
the bucky should never be used for a knee film.
the retropatellar joint space can be seen on an AP knee radiographic
on the basic lower leg it is preferred to have both joints visible
the femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body
a film that is too dark is said to be overexposed.
the fibula is larger than the tibia
the lesser trochanter is inferior to the greater trochanter.
for the axial view of the calcaneus the ankle must be dorsiflexed as much as possible and held in position.
clearing agent, hardener, activator, preservative, solvent
what are the parts of the fixer?
dissolves undeveloped silver halide
what does the clearing agent of the fixer do:
reduces exposed silver halide to black metallic silver
what do the reducing agents of the developer do?
how should film be stored?
how would you repair a light leak in the darkroom
4% or below
what should the repeat ratio for an experienced operator be?
identification, anatomy, markings, exposure, processing, esthetic quality, radiation safety, troubleshooting
what does I AM EXPERT stand for
PA, PA LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL
what is the protocol for PA wrist
PA, LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL (FAN)
what is the protocol for the PA hand
AP, LATERAL, AP OBLIQUE MEDIAL ROTATION, AP OBLIQUE LATERAL ROTATION
what is the protocol for the elbow
what is the protocol for the forearm
the coronal plane is parallel to the IR for the lateral view of the wrist
the stecher view is done to view what specific anatomy:
to see the lunate and pisiform
why would an AP projection of the wrist be done in addition to the routine views
what is another name for the tips of the fingers?
what is the protocol for a humerus
what is the temperature for the dryer
for the lateral scapula what is the rotation of the body
facing the bucky and the right side is touching
describe RAO position
proximal 4th of the femur and the pelvis
what is seen on the AP pelvis
contaminated developer, developer too high, film in developer too long (all these above)
what cause chemical fog
no more than 5 degrees
developer temp in processor
decrease exposure time
for involuntary motion
all of these: crystal thickness, crystal size, and uneven crystal distributions
structural mottle is caused by
what type of joint is the knee
15-20 degrees medially
on a AP hip the feet should be rotated
all of the following factors will result in high density except:
which is not considered a rapid screen
increase mAs by 50%
using the holmblad method for tissue thickness of the distal femur
this is the rounded socket of the hip joint
in some states it is required to have a quality control process for the film processor