X-ray tech final exam

High Contrast
when an image demonstrates considerable differences between the densities, the image is described as:
overall blackness of the film
radiographic density refers to the:
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angled 5 degrees cephalad and centered to the inferior margin of the patella
On a basic AP exam of the knee, the central ray should be:
Metatarsals
On a basic oblique of the foot, the______should be free of superimposition.
7
There are ______ tarsal bones in the foot.
Short scale contrast
When an image demonstrates only a few densities but there are large differences between the adjacent densities, the image is described as having:
there is emulsion on both sides of the film
What does it mean to say that radiographic film is “duplitized”?
99%
Flourescence is responsible for how much of the image on the film?
odors
radiographic film is sensative to light, radiation, and all of the following except:
small focal spot size, long SID, and short OID
Which of the following conditions contribute to increased recorded detail?
perpendicular to the center of the film entering the midshaft of the tibia
The cental ray on an AP lower leg is:
cephalic
In order to better visualize the joint space in the AP projection of the knee, the central ray may be angled 5 degrees:
knee joint and distal 3/4 of the femur
This should be seen on the distal femur:
100 RS
The standard screen against which others are measured is:
distortion
Which radiographic quality factor can be described as misrepresentation of the size or shape of a structure?
greater and lesser trochanter
The 2 projections shown below the neck of the femur is called:
phosphor layer
Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light?
200 RS
This screen is twice as fast as a 100 RS screen:
a more horizontal and wide curve
Which of the following describe the characteristic curve of a film with wide latitude and longer scale contrast?
elongation and foreshortening
Which of the following is/are shape distortion?
decrease in exposure time (seconds)
If a radiographic image appears blurred, which exposure factor would be used to correct this problem?
cuboid
lateral to the cuneiform bone in the midfoot is the:
every 3 months
how often should screens be cleaned and inspected?
x ray beam intensity and distance
the inverse square law governs the relationship between:
all of the above (entire digit, metatarsalphalangeal joint spaces, distal half of the metatarsals)
the structures that should be seen in a basic toe should include:
many shades of gray
Long scale contrast is
20-30 degrees
on a lateral knee, the knee should be flexed about:
intercondylar fossa
both the camp coventry and the holmblad method are used to view what:
settegast
this projection provides an axial view of the patella:
inversely proportional
what is the relationship between film latitude and contrast:
calcaneus
the heel bone is also called the
3
digits 2-5 of the foot have how many bones each?
tibia, fibula, both joints
in the lower leg AP and lateral views, these structures should be seen:
OID
which of the following should you decrease to reduce magnification?
intensity of the beam
the SID affects the:
quantum mottle
this is caused by random distribution of photons and appears as grainy spots on the image:
patella
which structures lies anterior to the distal femur?
fibula
the lateral bone of the lower leg is the:
lateral malleolus and medial malleolus
on the AP projection of the ankle which of these items must be visible?
talus
this is the “ankle bone”:
40 inches
the SID for most projections of the lower extremity is:
angled 10 degrees cephalic
the central ray on an AP foot is:
femoral condyles and the tibial plateau
these meet to form the knee:
low kVp
short scale of contrast (high contrast) is produced by:
contrast and latitude
the slope of the straight line portion of the sensitometric curve indicates the film’s:
patella
this lies anterior to the distal femur:
greater the film speed, higher the film contrast, narrower the exposure latitude
the steeper the straight line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
sesamoid
the patella is a ____bone.
kVp
contrast is usually controlled by:
the CR enters perpendicular to the medial malleolus
which of the following is true regarding the correct positioning of the ankle for a lateral projection:
reduce the amount of exposure
intensifying screens are designed to:
size and shape
what are the two primary types of distortion:
femoral neck
in the lateral projection of the knee, which of these should not be seen:
tibial spines
intercondylar eminences are also called
backscatter
the back of the cassettes has a layer of lead to prevent:
head
the prominence that inserts into the acetabulum is the ______of the femur.
protect film from exposure to light, prevent film from bending and scratching, hold and protect the intensifying screen
which of these is a function of the cassette:
make sure that film/screen contact is adequate
contact test mesh is used to
the color of light emitted by the screen phosphor
what is meant by the term spectral emission?
penumbra
this is the term used to describe the “unsharp edges” of the body part on the film:
produce a radiographic image with more recorded detail
when comparing two intensifying screens of the same phosphor type, the screen with the smaller phosphor crystals will:
decreased recorded detail
a change from the small focal spot to the large focal spot will result in:
image blur
which of the following may be caused by poor film/screen contact?
decrease mAs
if the radiographic image is overexposed, which of the following changes in exposure factors should be used to correct the problem:
gliding
the intertarsal joints are what type of joints?
intercondylar fossa
this lies between the condyles of the femur, posteriorly:
distance from the object to the film
the OID is the:
increase SID and use small focal spot
if the OID can not be minimized by positioning, magnification can be reduced by doing the following:
mAs
density is controlled by:
greater magnification
what would be the result of increasing the OID from 2 inches to 4 inches?
70 degrees
in the holmblad method, the angle between the femur and the table should be:
perpendicular to the MP joint
the central ray on a basic toe exam is
patella
the PA projection of the knee is usually done if this is of particular interest
30-45 degrees
on a lateral distal femur the leg should be flexed
angled so that the central ray passes between the patella and the distal femur
the cental ray using the Sunrise view of the knee is:
the plantar surface of the foot is in contact with the cassette
for an AP of the foot the foot should be situated so that
1-2 inches below the knee
on a distal femur view the bottom of the film is placed
70 degrees
in the holmblad method the angle between the femur and the table should be
50-70 degrees
at what temperature should radiographic film be stored?
inappropriate matching of film and screen increases the exposure required to produce an image, thus unnecessarily increasing the patients exposure
if a films spectral sensitivity is not matched to a screen’s spectral emission what is the consequences:
30-50%
what is the appropriate humidity for proper film storage:
50 mAs
if an image were made using 500 mA, 0.1 seconds, and 75 kVp what would the mAs be for this exposure:
scaphoid
the bone that is proximal to the cuneiforms is the
x ray penetration
kilovoltage controls
increase exposure time and increase mA
when using a fast screen how would you reduce quantom mottle:
tibial tuberosity
what is the knob like protuberance on the anterior surface of the tibia near the proximal end of the shaft.
meniscus
the articular surface of each femoral condyle is cushioned by a C shaped cartilage called the
source image distance
the distance between the tube target and the IR is termed:
40 degree cephalic
what is the proper CR angle and direction for the axial projection of the calcaneus when the ankle is dorsiflexed so that the plantar surface of the foot is perpendicular to the IR?
mA x time
mAs equals
false
the apex of the patella is on the proximal end of the patella.
true
in a distal femur exam, the bucky should be used.
true
the IR and film are the same thing.
false
tissue density and radiographic density are essentially the same thing
true
film should not be laid flat in storage
true
some people have a small sesamoid bone in the back of their knee called the flabella
false
the camp coventry method should always be done with a bucky
false
the bucky should never be used for a knee film.
false
the retropatellar joint space can be seen on an AP knee radiographic
true
on the basic lower leg it is preferred to have both joints visible
true
the femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body
true
a film that is too dark is said to be overexposed.
false
the fibula is larger than the tibia
true
the lesser trochanter is inferior to the greater trochanter.
true
for the axial view of the calcaneus the ankle must be dorsiflexed as much as possible and held in position.
clearing agent, hardener, activator, preservative, solvent
what are the parts of the fixer?
dissolves undeveloped silver halide
what does the clearing agent of the fixer do:
reduces exposed silver halide to black metallic silver
what do the reducing agents of the developer do?
vertically
how should film be stored?
replace filter
how would you repair a light leak in the darkroom
4% or below
what should the repeat ratio for an experienced operator be?
identification, anatomy, markings, exposure, processing, esthetic quality, radiation safety, troubleshooting
what does I AM EXPERT stand for
PA, PA LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL
what is the protocol for PA wrist
PA, LATERAL OBLIQUE, LATERAL (FAN)
what is the protocol for the PA hand
AP, LATERAL, AP OBLIQUE MEDIAL ROTATION, AP OBLIQUE LATERAL ROTATION
what is the protocol for the elbow
AP, LATERAL
what is the protocol for the forearm
false
the coronal plane is parallel to the IR for the lateral view of the wrist
scaphoid
the stecher view is done to view what specific anatomy:
to see the lunate and pisiform
why would an AP projection of the wrist be done in addition to the routine views
ungual tufts
what is another name for the tips of the fingers?
AP, LATERAL
what is the protocol for a humerus
110 degrees
what is the temperature for the dryer
45-60 degrees
for the lateral scapula what is the rotation of the body
facing the bucky and the right side is touching
describe RAO position
proximal 4th of the femur and the pelvis
what is seen on the AP pelvis
contaminated developer, developer too high, film in developer too long (all these above)
what cause chemical fog
no more than 5 degrees
developer temp in processor
decrease exposure time
for involuntary motion
all of these: crystal thickness, crystal size, and uneven crystal distributions
structural mottle is caused by
hinge
what type of joint is the knee
15-20 degrees medially
on a AP hip the feet should be rotated
large SID
all of the following factors will result in high density except:
100 RS
which is not considered a rapid screen
increase mAs by 50%
using the holmblad method for tissue thickness of the distal femur
acetabulum
this is the rounded socket of the hip joint
true
in some states it is required to have a quality control process for the film processor
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