YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND CRIME: A CASE STUDY OF OTTA METROPOLITIAN AREA “THE EFFECT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON YOUTH” 1. INTRODUCTION Unemployment describes the condition of people who are without jobs; unemployment is a global trend that mostly occurs in developing countries of the world, which not only affects them socially but also psychologically. “Unemployment is one of the developmental problems that face every developing economy in the 21st Century.
International statistics portray that industrial and service workers living in developing regions account for about two-thirds of the unemployed” (Patterson et al, 2006). In Nigeria accurate unemployment rates are difficult to obtain and generally mean little in a society where many who work are marginally employed and where begging is a socially accepted occupation. ‘The Nigerian economy since the attainment of political independence in 1960 has undergone fundamental structural changes. The domestic structural shifts have however not resulted in any significant and sustainable economic growth and development.
Available data show that the Nigerian economy grew relatively in the greater parts of the 1970s, with respect to the oil boom of the 1970s; the outrageous profits from the oil boom encouraged wasteful expenditures in the public sector dislocation of the employment factor and also distorted the revenue bases for policy planning. This among many other crises resulted in the introduction of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 and the current economic reforms. The core objective of the economic structural reform is a total restructuring of the Nigerian economy in the face of population explosion’ (Douglason et al, 2006).
Nigeria is considered as the most populous country in Africa and the eight most populous country in the world with a population of 154,729,000 citizens; with a nominal GDP of 5,207,116 billion and a nominal per capital income of $1, 4011, Nigeria also has the second largest economy in Africa. If I may ask is this country not blessed? But still plagued with youth unemployment which had been one of our major problems in recent years; both government and the private sector had discussed this issue at forums and conference but have not found a solution to it.
Its continued existence had been lined to lack of power supply and financial empowerment for youths; Youth unemployment in Nigeria is mostly referred to as graduate unemployment and this means that only the skilled youths are seen as unemployed while the unskilled youths are not a homogeneous group and their employment prospects differ according to numerous factors ranging from region to gender to school. ‘Youth unemployment in Nigeria has become one of the most serious socio-economic problems confronting the country.
The magnitude of this problem can be appreciated if accurate data on the number of jobless young people roaming the streets of Nigerian cities, towns and villages is available. Unfortunately, accurate statistics on youth unemployment are lacking. Nevertheless, estimates by the International Labour Organization (ILO, 1999) in Sub-Saharan Africa show that unemployment affects between 15-20 percent of the work force; and out of these estimates, young people comprises 40 to 75 percent of the total number of the unemployed’ (Kakwagh V.
V, 2010). Due to this an average Nigerian youth as considered an illegal way of survival which are considered as social vices that are bounded by law; an outcome of the country’s economic instability. However the economic and financial structural reform put in place have not yet yield significant results. In the light of this, this project or work seeks to examine how a major macroeconomic variable, unemployment follow-on on Nigerian youth using a slightly populated region ‘Otta’ in Ogun State as the case study.
In this project the following concept will be considered, unemployment in Nigeria, Effect of unemployment among youths and suggesting factors or reforms that can both be used to reform the effect and unemployment among youths. THE EFFECT OF YOUTH UNEMPOLYMENT IN NIGERIA Various crimes and social vices in Nigeria had been on the increase since mid-1990s and they include prostitution, internet scam, political violence, kidnapping, militancy, drug trafficking, armed robbery etc. the continued existence of these vices has been linked to the scarcity of jobs in Nigeria.
The relationship between this two variable is quiet clear “An idle hand or heart is the devils workshop”. In Nigeria youth unemployment has resulted to crime of all capacity, an average Nigerian youth has considered an illegal way of survival; an outcome of the present economic instability. Well then, this has given Nigeria a name in the international level, we are known for our corrupt intellect and minds making it difficult for foreigners to invest in the country, in-order for the economy to develop and reduce unemployment rate. 1. Statement of the Problem For over a decade youth unemployment as being a major factor in the Nation’s economy, this study therefore investigates the resulting effect of Youth unemployment among youths in the Otta metropolitan area in Ogun state. has resulted into various crimes and social vices (foible) and has being on the increase since the 1990s. 1. 2 General Objective of the Study The main objective of this study is to investigate or suggest solutions to the impending effect of youth unemployment in relation to crimes and foibles. . Rationale of youth unemployment in Nigeria 2. Effect of unemployment on Nigerian youth 3. Suggestive ways in which the effect can be reformed 1. Research Questions The study will answer the following questions; 1. What are the reasons for youth unemployment in Nigeria? 2. What are the effects of unemployment on Nigerian youth? 3. In what way can the effects be reduced or reformed? Hypothesis Ho. Unemployment has no constraining effect on Nigerian youth H1. Unemployment has a constraining effect on Nigerian youth 2. Scope of the study
The horizon of the study is limited to investigating the effect of youth unemployment, using Otta metropolitan area in Ogun State as the case study. 3. Significance of the Study A lot of studies had looked into the general aspect of youth unemployment globally and specifically in Nigeria, for example “Strategies to Combat Youth Unemployment and Marginalisation in Anglophone Africa” but this studies seem to lay less emphasis on the resulting effect of youth unemployment and ways in which it can be reduced or prevented .
Therefore, the following points are what make the study significant; 1. Pretext of youth unemployment in Nigeria 2. The effect(s) of unemployment on youth socially and psychologically in Nigeria 3. And ways in which the effect(s) can be reformed 4. Limitation to the Study Acquiring an accurate statistic on unemployed youth in Nigeria is one of the constraints affected this study, which makes the facts a little bit inaccurate. 1. 7 Operational Definition of Terms Effect: The impact of a particular situation. Unemployment: The condition of having no job
Youth: The period of human life between childhood and maturity Reference 1. Douglason, G. U and Gbosi, A (2006)”The Dynamics of productivity and unemployment Nexus: Implications for employment generation in Nigeria NES 2006”: Annual conference, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Patterson, Okafor & Williams (2006) “Globalization and employment Generation” Evaluating the impact of trade on Aggregate employment in Nigeria’s In Industrial Sector”: NES 2006 Annual Conference Nigeria. 3. Kakwagh Venatus V& Ikwuba Agnes (2010) “Youth Unemployment in Nigeria”: Causes and Related Issues.