Zoology Unit 2 - Phylum Porifera

Eumetazoa
True animals have cells arranged into tissues and are members of the group…
Microscopic joints between cells in tissue that allow for transport of materials.
intercellular junctions
Microscopic joints between cells in tissue that allow for transport of materials.
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Parazoa
Sponges have no true tissues so form a group called…
Parazoans
Colonies of protists that share genetic information.
paraphyletic
Derived from the same organism but not in the same clade.
True
True or False
Parazoans are considered to be paraphyletic to the Eumetazoans.
1. no true tissues so no organs
2. no reeliable body symmetry
3. body covered in pores for water flow
4. contain spicules that provide most skeletal support
5. specialized groups of cells perform various functions
6. most are monoecious
List 6 characteristics of sponges.
True
True or False
Like protists, sponges have a cellular level of organization.
1. calcium carbonate
2. silicon dioxide
3. spongin
The spicules of a sponge are composed of what 3 things.
spongin
A form of collegen, the most common animal protein on Earth.
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5
Humans contain _____ (#) cell types.
The sponge contains _____ (#) cell types.
monoecious
an organism with both male and female gonads.
1 flat, pigmented layer that contains toxins for protection
The sponge integumentary system consists of…
integumentary
The body system that is the outer most covering.
spicules, spongin and collagen
The sponge skeletal system consists of…
None. individual cells move using pseudopodia and flagella
Describe the sponge muscular system.
None
Describe the sponge nervous system.
None. amoebacytes (archeocytes) share nutrients with cells.
Describe the sponge circulatory system.
None. cells get oxygen from water through simple diffusion.
Describe the sponge respiratory system.
None. The sponge is “isotonic” with the seawater, same solute concentration.
Describe the sponge excretory system.
diffusion
Movement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
isotonic
same solute concentration in cell as in ocean
hypertonic
higher concentration in cell than in ocean
hypotonic
lower concentration in cell than in ocean
osmoregulation
Regulation of water content.
None. Individual hormones released cell to cell during growth and development.
Describe the sponge endocrine system.
Release hormones into the blood stream from glands and organs.
The purpose of the endocrine system.
hormone
Any molecule used for cell to cell communication.
insulin – tells cells to eat sugar
glucagon – tells cells not to eat suger
FSH – tells gonads to make gametes
testosterone – causes human to look male
Give some examples of human hormones.
pituitary gland – master endocrine gland
adrenal gland
gonads
thyroid gland
Give examples of human endocrine glands.
Food breakdown into useable molecules
The purpose of the digestive system.
intracellular, individual cells process food particles removed from water.
Describe the sponge digestive system.
True
True or False
Sponges are monoecious but use asexual and sexual reporduction.
monoecious
Both genders present in one animal, hermaphroditic.
archaeocytes
The sponge cell that can mature into all other sponge cell types.
1. produce gemmules (freshwater sponges and some saltwater species)
2. fragmentation
3. produce buds
Name the three forms of asexual reproduction in sponges.
gemmules
Small packages of archaeocytes that can grow into a new sponge.
Sponges produce eggs and sperm in huge numbers which disperse and hopefully join up with gametes from another sponge.
External
Not fertilizing themselves.
Explain sexual reproduction in sponges.
choanocytes
The sponge body forms are based on the location of…
List the three sponge body forms.
1. Ascon (asconoid)
2. Sycon (syconoid)
3. Leucon (leuconoid)
List the three sponge body forms.
List 4 characteristics of the ascon body form of a sponge.
1. Simplest body plan
2. Single osculum at the top with ostia channeling water into a choanocyte lined spongocoel
3. Not very efficient
4. Small sponges
List 4 characteristics of the ascon body form of a sponge.
List 2 characteristics of the sycon body form of a sponge.
1. Single osculum at the top with choanocyte lined ostia channeling water into a spongocoel.
2. no choanocytes in spongocoel.
List 2 characteristics of the sycon body form of a sponge.
List 6 characteristics of the leucon body form of a sponge.
1. most complex form
2. many ostia and many oscula
3. external pores connected to flagellated chambers lined with choanocytes. Chambers connect to excurrent canals then out through oscula.
4. often lump shaped like bath sponge
5. largest and most efficient
6. most prevalent
List 6 characteristics of the leucon body form of a sponge.
Leucon (leuconoid)
The most efficient body form of the sponge.
Ascon (asconoid)
The least efficient body form of the sponge.
Leucon (leuconoid)
Which sponge body shape is the most prevelant?
1. Pinacocytes
2. Amoebacytes
3. Choanocytes
Name 3 sponge cell types.
pinacoderm
The outer protective cover of flat cells on a sponge.
pinacocytes
Flat, pigmented cells that form the pinacoderm of a sponge.
myocytes
Pinacocytes that can contract like tiny muscles. (only seen in a few sponges to close osteum)
amoebocytes
These sponge cells are contained within a fluid mesohyl (middle layer) and distribute nutrients from choanocytes to other cells.
amoebocytes
These sponge cells can turn into (differentiate) any other type of sponge cell. (stem cell ability)
amoebocytes
Somy types of these sponge cells also produce spicules and secrete the proteins spongin and collagen.
amoebocytes
These cells are also known as “nurse cells” and are important if a sponge is ever damaged.
This sponge cell is also called a collar cell because it has a circular baffle of microvilli which acts as a seive to catch food particles in the water.
choanocyte
This sponge cell is also called a collar cell because it has a circular baffle of microvilli which acts as a seive to catch food particles in the water.
This sponge cell has a single flagellum that beats and, when combined with thousands of other like cells, pumps water through the sponge and out the osculum.
choanocyte
This sponge cell has a single flagellum that beats and, when combined with thousands of other like cells, pumps water through the sponge and out the osculum.
Collar of microvilli on choanocyte catches food particles which are absorbed into choanocyte. The food particle is passed on to the amoebocyte which distributes to other cells.
How does a sponge eat?
Because choanoflagellates have cells that are very similar to choanocytes in sponges.
Why do we think choanoflagellate protists like Volvox are related to sponges?
Demospongiae
Spongia and Spongilla are both from this Poriferan Class.
Demospongiae
This is the most common class of sponges.
Demospongiae
This class contains mostly marine sponges with leucon body plans.
Demospongiae
The sponges in this class have skeletons primarily of spongin.
Demospongiae
This class contains the largest sponges and can be shaped like vases, fingers, or encrusting (lump).
Calcarea
Grantia, Scypha, and Leucosolenia are in this Poriferan Class.
Calcarea
This class of sponges tends to be small, with skeletons of calcium spicules.
Calcarea
This class of sponges has body plans that are mostly asconoid and syconoid with some leuconoid.
Calcarea
This class os sponges is less brightly colored than class Demospongiae and usually found on smooth sandy bottoms.
Euplectella
Give an example of a sponge in the Class Hexactinellida.
Hexactinellida
Sponges in this class often have radial symmetry, typically a long cylendar.
Hexactinellida
This class of sponges live in very deep waters, below the layer of light penetration at the edge of rock or coral reefs and have no pigment/color.
Hexactinellida
This class of sponge is believed to be incredibly ancient and primitive. Fossiles say this is the oldest class of sponges.
Hexactinellida
Spicules in this class of sponges are 6-rayed and siliceous.
Hexactinellida
Sponges in this class have a syconoid or leuconoid body plan.
Hexactinellida
This class of sponges lack pinacocytes or the mesohyl layer. Instead, amoebocytes form tiny chambers lined with choanocytes.
A) True
Sponges are the simplest of multicellular animals and share basal ancestry with the Metazoa, as determined by molecular evidence.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Although they have the simplest organization of all the Metazoa, the sponges do exhibit a higher level of morphological and physiological integration than that found in protozoan colonies.
A) True
B) False
E) All of the above are correct.
The Porifera have which of the following characteristics in common?
A) A cellular level of organization.
B) Incipient tissues with a low level of integration.
C) A unique water current system power on which they depend for food.
D) A body with incurrent openings (called ostia) for water intake.
E) All of the above are correct.
B) False
All sponges are marine.
A) True
B) False
E) All of the above may be constituents of the sponge skeletal structure
The skeletal (supporting) structure of sponges may contain which of the following?
A) Fibrillar collagen (a protein)
B) Calcareous spicules
C) Siliceous spicules
D) Modified collagen called spongin
E) All of the above may be constituents of the sponge skeletal structure
D) All of the above are correct
There may be three different designs or levels of organization within the sponges. These levels or types of canal systems are described as?
A) Asconoid
B) Syconoid
C) Leuconoid
D) All of the above are correct
E) None of the above are correct
B) Mesenchyme
Sponge cells are loosely arranged in a gelantinous matrix called?
A) mesophyll
B) Mesenchyme
C) Mesoderm
D) Mesogloea
E) Mesenteron
A) Choanocytes
Which of the following drives the passage of water (laden with oxygen and microscopic food) through the canals and spongocoel of the sponges?
A) Choanocytes
B) Archeocytes
C) Pinacocytes
D) Collencytes
E) None of the above is correct
B) Archaeocytes
Amoeboid cells that move about in the mesohyl and carry out a number of functions, including phagocytosis and spicule formation are called?
A) Unicells
B) Archaeocytes
C) Spongocytes
D) Osteocytes
E) Chondrocytes
A) Gemmule
A freshwater sponge (Spongillidae), produces an unusual overwintering “bud” for the survival of the harsh conditions of winter. This bud is called a?
A) Gemmule
B) Parenchymula larva
C) Amphiblastula
D) Blastul
E) Gastrula
A) True
The Phylum Porifera is an ancient group, remote phylogenetically from other metazoan groups, although some evidence suggests that they are a sister group to the Eumetazoa. Their adaptive radiation is centered on elaboration of the water circulation and filter feeding system.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Fungi, metazoans, and choanoflagellates are all fall within the opisthokont clade.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Two competing hypotheses for the origin of the Metazoa are the syncyticial ciliate hypothesis and the colonial flagellate hypothesis, but the ribosomal RNA analyses generally support the colonial flagellate hypothesis.
A) True
B) False
bearing” denoting its feeding mechanism of drawing water and thus food suspended in the water into tiny pores.
A) True
B) False


A) True

The phylum name Porifera literally means “pore
C) True tissues and organs
The Phylum Porifera does NOT have which of the following characteristics?
A) Multicellular
B) All aquatic
C) True tissues and organs
D) All adults sessile
E) Asexual and sexual reproduction
E) All of the above are correct
Sponges with syconoid features would have which of the following?
A) Radial canals
B) Incurrent canals
C) Prosopyles
D) Apopyles
E) All of the above are correct
D) Collencytes-secrete keratin
Which of the following is mismatched?
A) Archaeocytes-amoeboid cells in the mesohyl
B) Sclerocytes-secrete spicules
C) Spongocytes-secrete spongin fibers
D) Collencytes-secrete keratin
E) Lophocytes-secrete large quantities of collagen
C) Regeneration
Sponges have a tremendous ability to repair injuries and to restore lost parts in a process called?
A) Inversion
B) Torsion
C) Regeneration
D) Transmogrification
E) None of the above is correct
C) Glass sponges
The members of the Class Hexactinellida are also called:
A) True sponges
B) Brittle sponges
C) Glass sponges
D) Amorphous sponges
E) None of the above is correct
A) True
The trabecular reticulum of the Hexactinellida is the largest, continuous syncytial tissue known in the Metazoa.
A) True
B) False
A) True
Sponges originated before the Cambrian Period.
A) True
B) False
C) Leuconoid
Which of the following forms yields the greatest amount of surface area to volume ratio in a sponge?
A) Asconoid
B) Syconoid
C) Leuconoid
D) Sponginoid
E) None of the above is correct
B) rectangular shape
Which of the following is not a characteristic of choanocytes?
A) flagellum on the exposed end
B) rectangular shape
C) play a role in sexual reproduction
D) one end embedded in mesohyl
E) None of the above is correct
C) Spicules of calcium carbonate
Which of the following is not true of a Hexactinellid sponge
A) Syncytial trabecular recticulum
B) Spicules are 6 rayed
C) Spicules of calcium carbonate
D) Siliceous spicules
B) False
The Calcarea has spicules composed of glass.
A) True
B) False
B) False
An archaeocyte is used for water movement and feeding
A) True
B) False
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